Uzbek Chemical Journal




UDK 543.872

S. N. Rasulova, V. P. Guro, U. N. Ruziev, U. R. Ernazarov, H. F. Adinaev, Е. Т. Safarov


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent.

Abstract. Background. Molybdenum disulfide in the composition of molybdenite concentrate is subject to surface passivation under oxidizing conditions of cinder processing. The use of a strong oxidizing agent, nitric acid, allows it to be overcome during leaching.

Purpose: to describe the kinetics of its oxidative leaching using the example of Mo-concentrate in nitric acid solutions.

Methodology. Samples of Mo concentrate were used (38% Mo in the MoS2 phase). The concentration of Cu (II), Fe (III), Mo (VI), Re (VII) ions in solutions was determined by photocolorimetry and spectrometry (AAC Perkin-Elmer 3030B, ICP-Agilent 7500 IСP MS); kinetic measurements were performed with compact, pressed disc-shaped samples of molybdenum disulfide.

Originality. The parameters of the kinetic equation of the leaching process were obtained: the order of the reaction according to the concentration of the oxidizing agent and the activation energy of the process of solid-phase diffusion of molybdenum (VI) ions from the crystal lattice of the mineral in the composition of the molybdenite concentrate into the liquid phase of the solution.

Findings. The kinetics of the reactive oxidation of a sulfide mineral in a hypochlorite electrolyte, in the temperature range of 24-70°C, at atmospheric pressure, was studied by the rotating disk method.

Key words: sulfide minerals, Mo-concentrate, reagent oxidation, leaching, sodium hypochlorite.


- kinetics of Mo-concentrate oxidation during 0-1800 sec period is studied;

-  reagent-oxidizer of sulfides, nitric acid, is applied;

-  parameters of the kinetic equation of leaching are calculated.


1. Zelikman A.N., Krein O.E., Samsonov G.V. Metallurgy of rare metals.-M .: Publishing house "Metallurgy", 1964.- pp. 107-127.(in Russian)

2. Fedulov O. V., Taranenko B. I., Ponomarev V. D., Svechkova L. V. Oxidation of molybdenite by nitric acid solutions // Metallurgy and enrichment. -1966.- No. 2.- P. 86-94.(in Russian)

3. Nerezov V.M., Dadabaev A. Yu., Kuzmina N.N., Popova T.N., Zakarchevnaya O.G. Kinetics of decomposition of molybdenite with nitric acid. - Integrated use of mineral raw materials, 1982, No. 10, pp. 41-44.(in Russian)

4. Potashnikov Yu.M., Lutsik V.I., Chursanov Yu.V. Investigation of the interaction of molybdenite with nitric acid // Izvestiya vuzov. Non-ferrous metallurgy. – 1984.– N 1. - P. 57-61.(in Russian)

5. TI 00193950-71-04-013: 2019 instead of TI 12810-5-1: 2008 Technological instruction for the production of molybdenum salts (tetramolybdate and ammonium paramolybdate).(in Russian)

6. TI 00193950-71-04-014: 2019 instead of TI 00193950-71-04-013: 2019 Technological instruction for the production of molybdenum salts.(in Russian)

7.Ts 00193950-074: 2018. Cinder of molybdenum middling product. Uzstandart-2018.(in Russian)

8. Sobol S.I., Spiridonova V.I., Nelen I.M. Oxidative autoclave leaching of sulfide molybdenum raw materials. Bulletin of Non-Ferrous Metallurgy.-1959.- No. 12 (137) .- P. 27-30. (in Russian)

9. Nikitina L.C. Decomposition of molybdenite products with nitric acid // Non-ferrous metals.-1983.- No. 4.- P. 63-67. (in Russian)

10. Lutsik V.I., Potashnikov Yu.M., Lutsik V.A. et al. Extraction of molybdenum from sulfide ore with an alkaline solution of sodium hypochlorite / // Izvestiya SO AN SSSR. Ser.chem. sciences. - T. 4. - 1985. - No. 11. - S. 49-54.(in Russian)

11. Lutsik, V.I. Kinetics of hydrolytic and oxidative dissolution of metal sulfides. Monograph / V.I. Lutsik, A.E. Sobolev. - Tver (Russia): TSTU, 2009 .-- 140 p.(in Russian)

12. Alexandrov P.V. Development of a hydrometallurgical method for extracting molybdenum from semi-finished ores of the Bugdain deposit: Diss ... Ph.D. - M., pec. MISiS-2011.-148 p.(in Russian)

13. Pleskov V., Filinovsky V. Yu. Rotating disc electrode. - Moscow: Nauka, 1972 .-- 225 p.(in Russian)

14. Rasulova S.N., Guro V.P. Kinetics of reagent oxidation of molybdenum sulfide in sulfate electrolyte. Part 2. // Uzbek. chem. zhurn. - 2020. - No. 4. - P.3-9.(in Russian)

15. Dauletbakov T.S., Smagulov M.O., Amirkhan A.A. Extraction of gold from cakes from leaching of gold-arsenic concentrate // Bulletin of the Kazakh National Technical University. K.I.Satpayeva. ISSN: 1680-9211 - 2011, Almaty. Abstract base of scientific journals. Scope of the document: pp. 209-2012. MRNTI: 53.01.05. S. 5270.(in Russian)

16. Kakovsky, I.A. Thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrometallurgical processes / I.A. Kakovsky, S.S. Naboychenko. -Almaty: Nauka, 1986, 272 p.(in Russian)

17. Chernyak A.S. Dissolution processes: leaching, extraction.-Irkutsk: Publishing house Irkut. University, 1998.-406 p.(in Russian)

18. Kakovsky, I.A. Kinetics of dissolution processes / I.A. Kakovsky, Yu.M. Potashnikov, Moscow: Metallurgy, 1975, 224 p.(in Russian)

19. Yurkevich, Yu.L. Decomposition of molybdenite with nitric acid / Yu.L. Yurkevich, K. Ya. Shapiro // Metallurgy of tungsten, molybdenum and niobium. -M .: Nauka, -1967.- S. 53-56.(in Russian)

To cite this article: S. N. Rasulova, V. P. Guro, U. N. Ruziev, U. R. Ernazarov, H. F. Adinaev, Е. Т. Safarov. Kinetics of reagent oxidation of molybdenum disulfide by nitric acid // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr2. - Pp.3-11. 

Received: 30.03.2021; Accepted: 30.04.2021; Published: 31.05.2021

* * *




UDK 546.05

А. Т. Sharipov, Zh. F. Rustamov, Kh. R. Tukhtayev


Tashkent Pharmaceutical Institute, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, e-mail::

Abstract. Backdgound. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the most studied biomaterials that has a typical apatite lattice structure and it belongs to the calcium phosphate family. It is the main inorganic compound thatis found in bones tissue and teeth.According to the properties of natural or synthetic hydroxyapatite has been frequently used as primary materials for orthopedic and dental applications in the preparation of biomaterials. They that may indicate that increased demand hydroxyapatite that used in medicine was being primarily met by imports.Obtaining medical hydroxyapatite using local raw materials is a urgent issue.

Purpose. The objective of this work was to gather information related to hydroxyapatite, providing readers with information about synthesis methods inmedical practice with high productivity.

Methodology. Hydroxyapatite was obtained as the object of study. Powdered X-ray diffractometer (Shimadzu XRD-6100), IR-spectrometer (Shimadzu IRAffinity-1S), etc. for chemical analysis of hydroxyapatite.

Originality. By improving the method of obtaining hydroxyapatite, its high productivity was 91.8%, which can be applied in the medical practice.

Findings. The method of obtaining hydroxyapatite (HAP) has been improved. Optimal conditions of the method were determined: it heated at 600°C during 4 hours, the range for the pH scale was 11 to 12. The temperature has been played an important role in the synthesis process. In particular, when the synthesis product was heated to 45°C, calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite was formed. Heating it to 600°C leds to a change in the structure of the substance and the formation of a stoichiometric synthetic HAP. However, an exceed of the temperature, i.e. 1000°C, resulted in the release of hydroxyl groups of the HAP and its conversion to β-tricalcium phosphate.

Key words: hydroxyapatite, synthesis, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite, stomatology


- the method of obtaining hydroxyapatite has been improved.

- it was found that changes on temperature and pH of the solution affect the product's productivity and purity.


1. Tathe, A., M. Ghodke, and A.P. Nikalje, A brief review: biomaterials and their application. // International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. -2010. 2 (4). -R. 19-23.

2. Safronova, T., et al. Synthesis of nanocrystalline calcium hydroxyapatite from calcium saccharates and ammonium hydrogen phosphate. // Reports of the Academy of Sciences. -2009. Federal State Unitary Enterprise of the Academic Scientific Center.(in Russian)

3. Danilchenko, S.N. The structure and properties of calcium apatites from the point of view of biomineralogy and biomaterial science (review). -2007.(in Russian)

4. Siddharthan, A., Rapid synthesis of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite nanoparticles by microwave irradiation. Trends in Biomater. // Artif. Organs.-2005. -18. -R. 110-113.

5. Leventouri, T., Synthetic and biological hydroxyapatites: crystal structure questions. // Biomaterials. -2006. 27 (18). -R. 3339-3342.

6. Szcześ, A., L. Hołysz, and E. Chibowski, Synthesis of hydroxyapatite for biomedical applications. // Advances in colloid and interface science. -2017. -249. -R. 321-330. Dental Science Review. 2015. 51 (4). -R. 85-95.

8. Fihri, A., et al., Hydroxyapatite: A review of syntheses, structure and applications in heterogeneous catalysis.// Coordination Chemistry Reviews. -2017.- 347.- P. 48-76.

9. Dorozhkin, S.V. Nanodimensional and nanocrystalline calcium orthophosphates. // American Journal of Biomedical Engineering. -2012 .- 2 (3) .- P. 48-97.

10. Poštić, S.D., X-ray diffraction technique in the analysis of phases of hydroxylapatite and calcium phosphate in a human jaw. // Int J Biomed. -2014.- 4. -R. 109-113.

To cite this article: А. Т. Sharipov, Zh. F. Rustamov, Kh. R. Tukhtayev. Synthesis of medical hydroxyapatite // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr2. - Pp.12-18. 

Received: 27.04.2021; Accepted: 27.05.2021; Published: 31.05.2021

* * *

UDK 541.123.3

E. S. Khusanov, J. S. Shukurov, A. S. Togasharov, S. Tukhtaev


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent. E-mail:

Abstract. Background. According to modern concepts of hormonal regulation, leaf fall begins when the level of ethylene and anti-auxin compounds prevails over auxin ones. Therefore, it seems promising to use compounds with biological activity as an additive to defoliants, which enhance the activity of enzymatic systems and stimulate plant growth. These compounds include ethanolamine salts of carboxylic acid.

Purpose. The aim of the study is the physicochemical substantiation of the process of obtaining effective nutritional and physiological activity, the solubility of the system and diagrams "composition-properties" based on urea phosphate and triethanolamine were studied.

Methodology. Determination of phosphorus and amide nitrogen content by spectrophotometric methods. The viscosity of solutions was measured using a VPZh viscometer, pH solutions on a pH meter FE 20 METTLER TOLEDO.

Originality. Polythermal and "composition-properties" diagrams were created based on the study of solubility in a system with the participation of water, urea phosphate and triethanolamine.

Findings. Based on the polytherms of binary systems and internal sections, a polythermal diagram of the solubility of the H3PO4 · CONH2)2 - N(C2H4OH)3 - H2O system in the temperature range from -45.6 to 82.1 °C was constructed. The crystallization temperatures, viscosity, density and pH of the medium system solutions were determined of the 30% 40%; 50% urea phosphate on triethanolamine water addition depending on the ratio of the components.

Key words: urea phosphate, triethanolamine, solubility diagram, viscosity, density.


- fields of crystallization of the components are delimited in the system;

- optimal conditions for obtaining a 60% solution of triethanolammonium urea phosphate established


1. Tsyplenkova A.Yu., Koltsova O.V., Lobanov N.N., Ershov M.A., Skvortsov V.G. Physicochemical systems of dicarboxylic acids, amino alcohol and water at 25 ° C. // Butlerov messages. -2013.-T. 36.- No. 11.- P.146-155. ROI: jbc-01 / 13-36-11-156.(in Russian)

2. Isaev F.G. The effect of ethanolamines on the yield, quality and lodging of plants // 12th Mendeleev Congress in General. and the butt. chemistry. Ref. Dokl. and mess. Moscow: 1981. No. 6. P. 157-158.(in Russian)

3. Koshkin E.I. Physiology of agricultural crop stability: textbook by E.I. Koshkin. Bustard.-2010.-S. 638.(in Russian)

4. Veselova S.V., Burkhanova G.F., Nuzhnaya T.V., Maksimov I.V. The role of ethylene and cytokinins in the development of defense reactions in Triticum aestivum plants infected with Septoria nodorum // Plant Physiology.-2016.-T. 63.- S. 649-660.(in Russian)

5. Veselova S.V., Burkhanova G.F., Nuzhnaya T.V. et al. Effect of ethylene and reactive oxygen species on the development of the pathogen Stagonospora nodorum Berk in the tissues of wheat plants // Biomics. 2018.Vol. 10 (4) .- p. 387-399.(in Russian)

6. Broekgaarden C., Caarls L., Vos I.A. et al. Ethylene: traffic controller on hormonal crossroads to defense // Plant Physiol.-2015.-V. 169.-P. 2371-2379.

7. Taverner E., Letham D., Wang J. et al. Influence of ethylene on cytokinin metabolism in relation to Petunia corolla senescence // Phytochemistry. 1999.-V. 51.-P. 341-347.

8. Molodkin A.K., Ellert G.V., Ivanova O.M., Skotnikova G.A. About urea compounds with acids. // Journal of Inorganic Chemistry. - M.: Science. -1967. - T. 7. - Issue. 4. - P. 947–957.(in Russian)

9. Nurakhmetov N.N., Beremzhanov B.A., Khanapin K.G. Solubility polytherm of the CO (NH2)2 - H3PO4 - H2O system. // Journal of Applied Chemistry. - L.: Science. –1973. -P. 2405-2408.(in Russian)

10. Luneva N.K., Petrovskaya L.I., Rekashova N.I. Thermal transformations of the H3PO4 - CO (NH2)2 system. // J. App. chemistry. - 2000. - No. 10. - P. 1585–159.(in Russian)

11. Abramova G.V., Ryskalieva A.K., Nurakhmetov N.N., Zhakanbaeva A.K. Thermochemical properties of some amide acids. Materials Int. Scientific and Practical Conf. "Thermodynamics and kinetics of equilibrium and nonequilibrium chemical processes" // Bulletin of KazNU. Ser.chem. -2002. -No. 1.-C. 59-62.(in Russian)

12. Trunin A.S. Petrova D.G. Visual-polythermal method / Kuibyshev Polytechnic. Ins-t. - Kuibyshev .: 1977, - 94 p. Dep. in VINITI No. 584-78.(in Russian)

13. Klimova V.A. Basic micromethods for the analysis of organic compounds Moscow: - Chemistry, 1975. – 224 p.(in Russian)

14. Koshkin E.I. Physiology of stability of agricultural crops: textbook / EI Koshkin. - M .: Bustard, 2010 .-- 638 p.(in Russian)

15. N.N. Tretyakov, Physiology and biochemistry of agricultural plants: textbook / N.N. Tretyakov and others; ed. N.N. Tretyakov. - M .: Colossus, 2005 .-- 656 p.(in Russian)

16. Karademir E., Karademir S., Basbag S. Determination of the impact of defoliation time on the yield and quality of cotton // Journal of Central European Agriculture. -2007. - T. 8. -No. 3. -C. 357-362.(in Russian)

17. Kulveer Singh, Pankaj Rathor, Gamber RK The Impact of Harvesting Defoliants on American Cotton Yields and Their Monetary Value. VEGETOS. -2015. - T. 28. -No 2. -S. 41-46.

18. Zh.S. Shukurov, M.K. Askarova, S. Tukhtaev. Solubility of components in the system NaClO3 – H3PO4 · CO (NH2) 2 - H2O // Chemical Journal of Kazakhstan. –Almaty. -2015. -No. 3. -WITH. 171-174.(in Russian)

19. Zh.S. Shukurov, M.K. Askarova, S. Tukhtaev. Solubility of components in the system H3PO4 · CO (NH2) 2 - C2H5OH - H2O // Reports of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. –Tashkent, 2016 – N 2. –С. 38-41.(in Russian)

20. Khaidarov G.Sh. Development of defoliants based on chlorates, 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid and ethanolamines: Dis. cand…. tech. sciences. –Tashkent, 1998. –155 p.(in Russian)

To cite this article: E. S. Khusanov, J. S. Shukurov, A. S. Togasharov, S. Tukhtaev. Solubility of components in a water system urea phosphate -triethanolamine // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr2. - Pp.18-25. 

Received: 24.04.2021; Accepted: 14.05.2021; Published: 31.05.2021

* * *

UDK 661.343

D. A. Tursunova, A.U. Erkaev, Z. K. Toirov, B. X. Kucharov


Tashkent Institute of Chemical Technology, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Abstract. Background. By the nature of the distribution in the solubility diagram of the Na2CO3-Na2SO4-NaOH-H2O system of crystallization regions of sodium sulfates and carbonates, their crystalline hydrates and double salts, the development of a technology for obtaining double sulfate-carbonate salts and sodium hydroxide from weak causticization solutions, which can be used in the production of synthetic detergents funds and glass industry with the replacement of imported sodium sulfate with local natural mirabilite.

Purpose. The aim of the study is to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining a double salt of sodium sulfate-carbonate and sodium hydroxide from soda ash and lime milk in the presence of mirabilite.

Methodology. The system Na2CO3-Na2SO4-H2O was studied by the isothermal solubility method; Na2CO3-NaOH-H2O; Na2SO4-NaOH-H2Oat temperatures of 25.50.75 and 100 °C. The crystallization fields Na2SO4·2H2O, Na2SO4, Na2CO3·7H2O, Na2CO3·H2O and the double salt 2Na2SO4·Na2CO3 are delimited.

Originality. The theoretical substantiation of the process of interaction of sodium carbonates, sulfates and hydroxides in three-component systems 2Na + // SO4-2, CO3- – H2O is carried out; 2Na + // SO4-2, 2OH - H2O; 2Na + // CO32-, 2OH - H2O at 25-100 0С, which are the basic part of the one cationic four-component system 2Na + // SO4-2, CO32-, 2OH - H2O. Based on the data obtained from literature and experimental studies, a diagram of the phase equilibria of the 2Na + // SO4-2, CO32- - H2O system at 25 and 1000C was constructed.

Findings. Chemical and X-ray phase analyzes have established the composition of intermediate products formed during the evaporation of weak solutions of causticizing soda ash with milk of lime in the presence of mirabilite.

Key words: solubility chart, crystallization, soda ash, mirabilite, burkeite, sodium hydroxide, milk of lime.


- chemical, microscopic and X-ray phase analyzes investigated double salts of sodium sulfate-carbonate;

-determined the rheological properties of one stripped off solutions.


1. Van't Goff Ya. G. Oceanic salt deposits.- L: ONTI Khimteoret, 1936. - 344 p.(in Russian)

2. Zdanovsky A.B., Solovieva E.F., Lyakhovskaya E.I., Shestakov N.E., Shleimovich R.E., Abutkova L.M. Handbook of experimental data on the solubility of multicomponent water-salt systems. -Edit. 2nd, lane. and additional - L.: Chemistry, 1973.-Book 2.-1070 p.(in Russian)

3. Zhukov A.F., Kolosov I.F., Kuznetsov V.V. Analytical chemistry. Physical and physicochemical methods of analysis.-M .: Chemistry, 2001.-496 p.(in Russian)

4. Flame photometry: guidelines for laboratory work. - Samara: SSTU, 2013.-13 p.(in Russian)

5. Doebelin N., Kleeberg R. (2015) Profex: a graphical user interface for the Rietveld refinement program BGMN // Journal of applied crystallography. -48 (5) .- P.1573-1580.

6. Crystal structures / Ed. R.W.G. Wyckoff. 2nd ed. Interscience Publ.-N. Y. -1964.-V. 2.-588 p.

7. Bousfield, B. Surface preparation and microscopy of materials. -Wiley, New York., 1992.

8. Patrick Echlin Handbook of Sample Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, Cambridge Analytical Microscopy, UK, Springer.-2009.-330p.

9. José M. Fernández, César Plaza, Alfredo Polo, Alain F. Plante Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG - DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application. January 2012.-Pages 158-164.

10. Barbara Charmas1, Karolina Kucio1, Volodymyr Sydorchuk2, SvitlanaKhalameida 2, Magdalena Ziezio1 and Aldona Nowicka1. Characterization of Multimodal Silicas Using TG / DTG / DTA, Q-TG, and DSC Methods. Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chromatographic Methods, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Maria Curie-Skłodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin, Poland;

11. Makoto Otsuka and Hajime Kinoshita. Quantitative Determination of Hydrate Content of Theophylline Powder by Chemometric X-ray Powder Diffraction Analysis. // AAPS Pharm Sci. Tech.-2010.-11 (1): 204–21

12. Ann Newman, Ph.D. X-ray Powder Diffraction in Solid Form Screening and Selection. September 1, 2011.

13. Tursunova D.A., Erkaev A.U., Kaipbergenov A.T., Begimqulova K.G. Studying of mineralogical composition of deposits formed by vaporization caustic soda solution.//Austrian Journal of Technical and Natural Sciences.-7-8.-2019.

14. Tursunova D.A., Begdullaev A.K., Erkaev A.U., Toirov Z.K. Study of the process of evaporation of caustic soda solution. // Collection of materials of the 1st international scientific-practical conference "Actual problems of the introduction of innovative equipment and technologies at enterprises for the production of building materials, chemical industry in related industries." - Fergana. -2019.-2v. -C .225-229.(in Russian)

15. Tursunova D.A., Erkaev A.U., Toirov Z.K., Kucharov B.Kh. Investigations of the process of stripping the production of caustic soda by the chemical method in the presence of sodium sulfate. // 2018 yil "Fan va ta'limtarbiyaning dolzarb masalari" Republic of ilmiy-nazari va amaliy anzhuman materialari.-Nukus-2018.-С 58-59.(in Russian)

To cite this article: D. A. Tursunova, A.U. Erkaev, Z. K. Toirov, B. X. Kucharov. Preparation of concentrated solution of caustic soda and burkeyite from weak caustification solutions // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr2. - Pp.26-33. 

Received: 02.04.2021; Accepted: 03.05.2021; Published: 31.05.2021

* * *

UDK 661.683.4.

S. R. Khudoyarov, M. M. Yakubov, H. R. Valiev, D. B. Kholikulov, O. M. Yokubov, Sh. A. Mukhametdzhanova


1Филиал Национального исследовательского технологического университета «МИСиС» г. Алмалык, 2ГУП «Фан ватараккиет» при ТашГТУ, 3Ташкентский государственный технический университет г.Ташкент

Abstract. Background. At present, the urgent problem facing the mining and metallurgical industry of  Uzbekistan is increasing the complexity of the use of raw materials, extracting valuable components from man-made waste, involving them in processing. Technogenic raw materials of ferrous metallurgy in the form of steelmaking slag are subjected to enrichment, but the concentrate obtained in this case has a too small fraction, which cannot be loaded into the metallurgical furnace due to large losses by the gas flow. To avoid dust carry-over, the technogenic raw material of fine fraction after its enrichment can be processed into a valuable product, iron ore coal metallized pellets used in the form of raw materials in steel smelting.

 Purpose.  Processing of man-made waste in the form of furnace steel-making slag, with the receipt of iron ore coal metallized pellets, which can be used as raw materials for steel melting.

 Methodology. To determine the degree of enrichment of furnace slags by the jigging method, experiments were carried out in a laboratory two-chamber diaphragm jigging machine MOD-2. And also was studied the washability of furnace slag on one level concentration table of the LKS -1Ya grade. The effectiveness of the reducing ability of coke and Angren coal for iron oxides was carried out in a laboratory furnace.

Originality. The optimal indicator of the size of steel-making slags for the extraction of iron and its compounds from ferrous metallurgy slags by the method of gravity concentration has been determined. The physicochemical processes occurring during the heat treatment of ore-fuel pellets in a reducing environment have been determined.

Findings. As a result of research and development, a method has been developed for processing steel-making slag, which makes it possible to obtain an additional amount of raw materials for steel smelting, as well as the use of production residues in the construction industry.

 Key words: slag, furnace, reduction, beneficiation, steel, jigging machine, concentration table, coke, coal.


-     an effective method for processing steel-making slag has been proposed, which makes it possible to obtain iron-ore coal metallized pellets used as raw materials for steel melting.


1. Yusupkhodzhaev A.A. Theory of waste-free technologies in ferrous metallurgy: Textbook. - Tashkent: Tashkent State Technical University, 2017 .-- P. 74.(in Russian)

2. Demin B.L. Technogenic formations from metallurgical slags as an object of complex processing / B.L. Demin, Yu.V. Sorokin, A.I. Zimin // Steel. - 2001. -№11. S. 99-102.(in Russian)

3. Yusfin Yu.S. Industry and the environment - M .: ICC "Akademkniga", 2002. - 469 p.(in Russian)

4. Panfilov M.I., Shkolnik Ya.Sh., Orininsky N.V., Kolomiets V.A., Sorokin Yu.V., Grabeklis A.A. Slag processing and waste-free technology in metallurgy - Moscow: Metallurgy, 1987. - 238 p.(in Russian)

5. Ryabov TV Processing of metallurgical slags and their use Ryabov // News of ferrous metallurgy abroad. - 2000. – No 4.–S. 128-130.(in Russian)

6. Golov G.V., Sitnikov S.M., Kalimulina E.G. Technology of metal extraction from waste slag // Steel. - 2001. - No. 10. - S. 83.(in Russian)

7. Matkarimov S.T., Khudoyarov S.R., Berdiyarov B.T., Samadova L.Sh. Investigation of the optimal method for extracting iron and its compounds from steel-making slags. // International scientific and practical conference "Scientific and technological progress as a factor in the development of modern civilization." - Russia: Sterlitamak, 2017 .-- S. 77-81.(in Russian)

8. Sasisekaran. Ironindustryand Metallurgy: AstudyofAncientTechology.-2014. - 381 p.

9. Kharlashin P.S. Theoretical foundations of steelmaking processes. Textbook. - K .: IZMN., 1998. - 297 p.(in Russian)

10. Bigeyev AM, Bigeyev VA Metallurgy of steel. Textbook for universities. Ed. 3rd. - Magnitogorsk: MSTU, 2000 .-- 544 p.(in Russian)

11. Korotich V.I. Theoretical foundations of pelletizing iron ore materials.-Publishing house "Metallurgy", 1966. S. 66-80.(in Russian)

12. Stolbushkin A.Yu. and other Features of granulation of technogenic and natural raw materials // Building materials. - 2012. - No. 5. - S. 85-89.(in Russian)

To cite this article: S. R. Khudoyarov, M. M. Yakubov, H. R. Valiev, D. B. Kholikulov, O. M. Yokubov, Sh. A. Mukhametdzhanova. Research of enrichment of furnace slags of ferrous metallurgy at JSC"UZMETKOMBINAT" // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr2. - Pp.34-39. 

Received: 28.03.2021; Accepted: 07.05.2021; Published: 31.05.2021

* * *

UDK 666.7:546.05

F. G. Khomidov, Z. R. Kadyrova, Kh. L. Usmanov, Sh. M. Niyazova


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent. E-mail:

Abstract. Background. Reducing the sintering temperature of silicate materials and the use of waste of various industries contributes not only to saving fuel, electricity and natural raw materials, but also significantly increases production with low cost. In addition, the use of industrial waste can reduce the areas assigned to careers and dumps suitable for agriculture, which leads to an improvement in the environmental condition of the environment.

It should be noted that at present, the results of studies on the study of the synthesis of calcium aluminates sol-gel, as well as the possibility of using aluminous waste in these processes, are not published in the republic.

Purpose. The study is the possibility of using alumina containing waste of the Shurtan gas chemical complex for the synthesis of tricalcium aluminate 3CaO‧Al2O3 (C3A) as a sol-gel method.

Methodology. Experimental works were carried out using modern physicochemical and physico-mechanical methods, such as X-ray phase, analytical, etc.

Originality. The optimal synthesis temperatures and the possibility of using alumina-containing waste in obtaining tricalcium aluminate by sol-gel method.

Findings. The optimal synthesis temperatures and methods of using the alumina-containing waste in the process of obtaining tricalcium aluminate are determined. It has been established that the optimum synthesis temperature is 1100°C and corresponds to the maximum full formation of tricalcium aluminate with the smallest dispersion of particles, the size of 100-700 nm

Key words: tricalcium aluminate, sol-gel method, alumina containing waste, phase transformations, X-ray analysis, crystal structure, γ-alumina.


- the C3A synthesis temperature using the sol-gel method is 1100 ℃ and corresponds to the maximum full of C3A formation with the smallest dispersion of particles, the size of 100-700 nm.

-  the possibilities of using an alumina containing waste in obtaining tricalcium aluminate are studied.


1. Kyeongsoon P., Joon W., Deshmukh A. Effect of alkaline metal ions on the photoluminescence properties of Eu3 + -doped Ca3Al2O6 phosphors // Journal of rare earths. -2016. - Vol. 34. - No. 12. - P. 1193 - 1197.

2. Rodr´ıguez M.A. Aguilar C.L. Solution combustion synthesis and sintering behavior of CaAl2O4 // Ceramics International. -2012. - Vol. 38. - P. 395-399

3. Feng Ch., Yanruo H., Jialin S. Preparation and characterization of calcium aluminate by chemical synthesis // Journal of University of Science and Technology Beijing. -2006. - Vol.13. - P.82 - 86.

4. Lukáš K., Jiří M., Jan K., František Š. XPS characterization of polymer – monocalcium aluminate interface // Cement and Concrete Research.-2014. - Vol. 66. - P. 110 - 114.

5. Ahmed A. A., Hamdy E. Synthesis and characterization of some calcium aluminate phases from Nano-size starting materials // Boletín de la Sociedad Española de cerámica y Vidrio. - 2020. - Vol.240. - P.9 - 15.

6. Dekkers R., Woensdregt C. F. Crystal structural control on surface topology and crystal morphology of normal spinel (MgAl2O4) // J. Cryst. Growth. - 2002. - Vol.236. - P.441 - 454.

7. Freeda M., Subash T.D. Photoluminescence investigations of Ytterbium doped Calcium Aluminum nanophosphor synthesized by sol-gel technique // Materials Today: Proceedings. - 2020. - Vol.24. - P.2149 - 2156.

8. Madhukumar K. Thermoluminescence dosimetry of rare earth doped calcium aluminate phosphors // Bull. Mater. Sci. -2006. - Vol. 29. - No. 2. - P.119–122.

9. Xiaowu Hu., Limin Wu. E ff ects of co-activator species and transition metal ions doping on structure and fl uorescence properties of strontium aluminate phosphors // Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics. - 2019. - Vol.30. –Iss.4. - P.3804 - 3810.

10. Khomidov F.G., Kadyrova Z.R. and other Features of aluminomagnesia spinel obtained by the sol-gel method // Problems of geology and development of mineral resources: Proceedings of the VII International symposium of students. and young scientists. - Tomsk. - 2020. - Vol. 1. - p. 382 - 383.(in Russian)

11. Eminov Al.A., Kadyrova Z.R., Iskandarova M. Gas processing waste perspective raw materials for designing the composition of ceramic grinding bodies // Glass and Ceramics.-2021.-No.1.-P.43 - 48.

To cite this article: F. G. Khomidov, Z. R. Kadyrova, Kh. L. Usmanov, Sh. M. Niyazova. Sol gel synthesis of tricalcium aluminate by using alumina  containing waste // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr2. - Pp.39-44. 

Received: 28.04.2021; Accepted: 24.05.2021; Published: 31.05.2021

* * *

UDK 541.13; 546. 619;547.415.1;661.875

N. B. Eshmamatova, K. M. Abdiraimova, Sh. Sh. Sunatov, Q. N. Nazarzoda


National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek., Tashkent. E- mail:

Abstract. Background. Conducting targeted research to improve the quality of metals and their effective use is important in the world, with special attention paid to the following tasks: the use of water-soluble, organic inhibitors to combat scale formation, determination of optimal conditions for the inhibition of corrosion of metals.

Purpose. Creation of new highly effective inhibitors based on nitrogen-containing compounds to prevent corrosion of steel in acidic medium and investigation of the mechanism of their action.

Methodology. In work gravimetry, IR spectroscopy, X-ray structural analysis as well CE 105 corrosiometer.

Originality. Mechanisms of action of organic inhibitors with chromium-containing compounds have been proposed, general regularities have been established affect the effectiveness of steel protection against corrosion in their presence.

Findings. The results of the study are that the mechanism of protection of organic inhibitors has depended on their structure and physico-chemical characteristics.

Key words. Corrosion inhibitors, diethylamine, hexamethylenediamine, dimethylolhexa- methylenediamine,  melamine,  dimethylolmelamine,  potassium chromate, potassium dichromate, steel, inhibition.


- two-component inhibitors based on organic amines and chromium-containing compounds;

- the use of inhibitors based on amine compounds;

- determination of the mechanism of metal protection with an organic inhibitor, depending on their structure;

- the mechanism of the protective action of two-component metal corrosion inhibitors is proposed.


1. Zadorozhny P.A., Sukhoverkhov S.V., Semenova T.L., Markin A.N. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography with mass-selective detection for the analysis of imidazline-containing corrosion inhibitor // Bulletin of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 5.-2010. –S.82-83.(in Russian)

2. Semikhina L.P., Moskvina E.N., Kolchevskaya I.V. The phenomenon of synergism in mixtures of surface substances // Bulletin of the Tyumen State University. Socio-economic and legal research. -Tyumen.-Issue. 5.-2012. –S.90-91.(in Russian)

3. Grigorieva I.O., Dresvayannikova A.F. Features of the anodic reaction of polarization and corrosive behavior of aluminum in salt nitrite solutions // Bulletin of Kazan Technological University.-Kazan: Vol. 22.-T.16.-2013. –S.293-294.(in Russian)

4. Khaidarova G.R. Corrosion inhibitors for the protection of oilfield equipment // Modern problems of science and education: electron. scientific journal-2014. # 6.URL: http: // Russian)

5. Semenova I.V., Florianovich G.M., Khoroshilov A.V. Corrosion and Corrosion Protection, Ed. I.V. Semenova.-M .: FIZMATLIT, 2002.-336 p.(in Russian)

6. Eshmamatova NB Synthesis and physicochemical study of oligomeric corrosion inhibitors // Privolzhsky scientific bulletin. –Izhevsk.-2013.-Volume 1. –S. 8-12.(in Russian)

7. Khaled K.F. Theoretical study of the structural effects of polymethylene amines on corrosion inhibition of iron in acid solutions // Electrochimica Acta. - 2005. - No. 50. - P. 2515-2520.

8. Fakhretdinov PS, Borisov DN, Romanov GV, Khodyrev Yu.P., Galiakberov RM. Corrosion inhibitors from a number of ammonium compounds based on α-olefins. - Kazan Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Oil and Gas Business, 2008. –P. 1-18.(in Russian)

9. Narzullaev A.Kh., Jalilov A.T., Beknazarov Kh.S. Study of the effectiveness of the corrosion inhibitor IKCF-1 in 1M HCl // Universum: chemistry and biology: electron. scientific. zhurn. 2019. No. 2. (56). URL: Russian)

10. Afanasyev A.V. Increasing the effectiveness of inhibitor protection of field pipelines by methods of updating system processes. Experience in the use of corrosion inhibitors // Engineering practice: production – tech. oil and gas. journal-2012.-№5. –С.34-42 URL: Russian)

11. Abdrakhmanov N.Kh., Abdrakhmanova K.N., Vorokhobko V.V., Shaibakov R.A. Conf.-Ufa: USPTU, 2014.-P.28-31.(in Russian)

12. Rosenfeld I.L. Corrosion inhibitors.-M .: Publishing house "Chemistry". 1977.-352 s.(in Russian)

13.1Akbarov Kh.I., 1Eshmamatova N.B., 2Fayzullaev N.I., 1Kalyadin V.G., 1Azimov L.A. // Synthesis and Physico-Chemical Properties of Oligomeric Inhibitors of Corrosion on the Base of Nitrogen, Phosphorous-Containing Compounds // International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology: -Vol. 29.-No.5.2020.-Pp. 6489 - 6506.

14. Yusufboy R., Eshmamatova N., Akbarov Kh. Defense mechanisms and gravimetric estination of the effectiveness of inhibitors on the base amino compounds // Universum: chemistry and biology. Issue: 12 (78). December 2020. Part 2. –P. 20-25.

To cite this article: N. B. Eshmamatova, K. M. Abdiraimova, Sh. Sh. Sunatov, Q. N. Nazarzoda. Investigation of effectivity of steel corrosition by two-component inhibitors on the base organic amines and chromimum containing componds // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr2. - Pp.44-52. 

Received: 05.05.2021; Accepted: 27.05.2021; Published: 31.05.2021

* * *

UDK 661.632.14

Kh. A. Otaboev, D. Sh. Sherkuziev, O. A. Badalova, R. Radjabov, Sh. S. Namazov, A. R. Seytnazarov


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent. 1Наманганский инженерно-технологический институт, ул. Касансай 7, 160115, Наманган, E-mail:

Abstract. Background. Single-sided phosphate fertilizers include simple, enriched and double superphosphates. They are especially effective when applied under fall plowing. Simple superphosphate is produced by decomposition of natural phosphates with sulfuric acid, enriched - with a mixture of sulfuric and phosphoric acids, and double - with phosphoric acid by chamber, flow or chamber-flow methods. Kyzylkumphosphorite complex produces washed and burned concentrate (WBC) for ammophosproduction. Washed and dried concentrate (WDC) is an intermediate phosphorite product used to obtain WBC. Of practical interest is the processing of WDC into simple superphosphate.

Purpose. Study of the process of obtaining simple superphosphate by two-stage acid treatment of WDC under anhydrite conditions.

Methodology. The decomposition of WDC is carried out in two stages: at the first stage, the main part of WDC (70-80%) decomposes at 130°C with concentrated H2SO4 to form phosphoric acid (45-50% P2O5) and calcium sulfate of the anhydrite form, and in the second Stage acidic reaction mass containing concentrated Н3РО4 is neutralized by the remaining amount of WDC (20-30%), resulting in the formation of monocalcium phosphate. In order to improve the conditions for granule formation of the superphosphate mass, the process of its rounding is carried out in the presence of water. P2O5 content free in the reaction mixtures and finished products was determined by titration with 0.1 n NaOH using indicators of methyl orange and phenolphthalein. In products, the total, assimilable and aqueous forms of P2O5 were determined by the photocolorimetric method. The strength of the granules was measured according to GOST 21560.2-82.

Originality. The optimal conditions for two-stage sulfuric acid processing of WDC under anhydrite conditions have been found, where concentrated phosphoric acid and anhydrous calcium sulfate are formed at the first stage of processing, and monocalcium phosphate at the second stage. The second stage is actually the basis of the mechanism for the formation of monocalcisphosphate and granulation of the superphosphate mass, where a skeleton of calcium sulfate crystals saturated with phosphoric acid acts as a granulation center.

Finding.  It is shown that an increase in the time of sulfuric acid treatment of MSA from 2 to 60 minutes leads to an increase in the coefficient of its decomposition. It turned out that 20 minutes and a 100% H2SO4 norm are enough for the maximum decomposition of WDC. Neutralization of acidic phosphoric acid gypsum mass with 220% WDC rate is actually the beginning of the superphosphate granulation process. To improve the conditions of granulation, the process of rolling the superphosphate mass must be carried out in the presence of at least 15% water. In this case, superphosphate is obtained of a sufficiently high quality (0.17-0.96% P2O5free, 17.42-18.34% P2O5total, of which 70-80% is in a water-soluble form, the strength of its granules is ˂2MPa).

Key words: washed and dried concentrate, sulfuric acid, decomposition, neutralization, monocalcium phosphate, humidification, granulation, simple superphosphate.


- sulfuric acid treatment of WDC carried out in two successive stages:

- 1st stage of sulfuric acid treatment of WDC: formation of concentrated Н3РО4 and CaSO4 crystals;

- 2nd stage of neutralization of phosphoric acid gypsum mass with WDC: formation of monocalcium phosphate and granulation of superphosphate mass.


1. Overview of the mineral fertilizers market during a pandemic. Russian)

2. Spirina V.Z., Solovyova T.P. Agrochemical methods for the study of soils, plants and fertilizers. - Tomsk: Publishing House of Tomsk State University, 2014 .-- 336 p.(in Russian)

3. Pozin M.E. Mineral fertilizer technology. - L .: "Chemistry", 1989. - 352 p.(in Russian)

4. Tadzhiev S.M., Beglov B.M. Development of the technology of simple ammoniated superphosphate from Tashkur phosphorites by the chamber method // Chemical industry. - 2002. - No. 7. - S. 7-10.(in Russian)

5. Angelov A.I., Sobolev N.V. Development of technology for enriched superphosphate from phosphate rock of the Yegoryevskoye field. // Advances in chemistry and chemical technology. - 2003 .-- v. XVII. - No. 8. - S. 39-41.(in Russian)

6. Sakharov Yu.N., Makhotkin A.F., Makhotkin I.A., Sitkin A.I. Mechanism and kinetics of decomposition of phosphate raw materials. // Bulletin of Kazan Technological University. - 2011.- N 11.-С.18-22.(in Russian)

7. Samoyedov M.M., Orudzhev S.S., Samoyedova T.A. Intensification and mathematical description of the superphosphate production process. // Chemical industry today. - 2005. - No. 8. - S.19-22.(in Russian)

8. Baydyuk O.N., Lipatov G.Ya., Styazhkina E.S. Hygienic characteristics of the factors of the working environment in the production of superphosphates. // Fundamental research. - 2010. - No. 7. - S. 13-16.(in Russian)

9. Dekhkanov Z.K., Namazov Sh.S., Seitnazarov A.R., Reimov A.M., Beglov B.M. Phosphorites of the Central Kyzyl Kum and their enrichment. // Uzbek chemical journal. - 2016. - No. 3. - S. 70-80.(in Russian)

10. Caesar Norbert V. Industrial removal of chlorides from phosphate ore in the wet process of dressing in the extreme conditions of the Uzbek desert. // Mineral processing. - 2008. - N 1. - S.10-15.(in Russian)

11. Otaboev Kh.A., Badalova O.A., Namazov Sh.S., Seitnazarov A.R., Beglov B.M. Two-stage processing of phosphate rock with sulfuric acid - the basis of flow technology obtaining simple superphosphate. // Chemical industry today. - 2020. - No. 3 - P. 32-41.(in Russian)

12. Pozin M.E., Kopylev B.A., Tumarkina E.S., Belchenko G.V. A guide to practical exercises in the technology of inorganic substances. / L .: Goskhimizdat, 1963 .-- 376 p.(in Russian)

13. Vinnik M.M., Erbanova L.N., Zaitsev P.M. Methods of analysis of phosphate raw materials, phosphorus and complex fertilizers, feed phosphates. / M .: Chemistry, 1975. - 218 p.(in Russian)

14. GOST 21560.2-82. Mineral fertilizers. Test methods. - M .: Gosstandart, 1982 .-- 30 p.(in Russian)

To cite this article: Kh. A. Otaboev, D. Sh. Sherkuziev, O. A. Badalova, R. Radjabov, Sh. S. Namazov, A. R. Seytnazarov. Two-stage acid processing of washed dry concentrate into granulated simple superphosphate // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr2. - Pp.52-62. 

Received: 12.05.2021; Accepted: 28.05.2021; Published: 31.05.2021

* * *




UDC 547.831.9;547.861.8

1А. D. Kudiyarova, 2J. M.  Ashurov, 3A. B. Ibragimov, 3V. K. Sabirov,  2,4K. U. KHodjaniyazov


1Karakalpak State University named after Berdak, Nukus, Uzbekistan, 2Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Tashkent 100125, Uzbekistan, 3Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Tashkent, 100170, Uzbekistan, 4National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, 100174, Uzbekistan, e-mail:

Abstract. Background. Modern science of Uzbekistan expects a tendency to integrate with industry. Obtaining new pharmacologically active compounds becomes relevant in the development of domestic drugs. Improving the quality of these drugs has a decisive interest. In addition, the establishment of accurate geometric characteristics of molecules is important for their practical use and clarifying the structure-activity relationship.

Purpose. The purpose of the current investigation was to obtain the new complex of Co(II)-ciprofloxacin and determination of its crystal structure.

Methodology. X-ray crystallography at 293 K on an Xcalibur R Oxford Diffraction automated diffractometer was used.

Originality. The crystal structure and molecular characteristics of Co-ciprofloxacin ionic complex is studied for the first time.

Findings. The crystal structure of Co-ciprofloxacin ionic complex consists of the [Co(H2O)6]2+ tetrahedron and two singly charged (HL)+ cations, two sulfate anions and six water molecules. The ion Co2+ lies on the symmetry axis 2 at the position 4e. It has the octahedral coordination with Co-Ow 2.073 Å (average) and angles Ow-Co-Ow’ is 91° (average). Two water molecules surrounding the Co2+ ion and the four O atoms of the sulfate group are disordered into two positions with occupation factors 0.60(1) and 0.40(1) in the cation and 0.46(1) and 0.54(1) in the anion.

Keywords: Ionic complex, ciprofloxacin, crystal structure, H-bond.


-  the crystals of Co-ciprofloxacin were obtained in ionic complex form.


1. "CIPRO (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride) TABLETS" (https: //,19847s42,198...). Food and Drug Administration. 2008.84.

2. "Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride" ( /ciprofloxacin-hydrochloride.html). The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived ( / from the original on 23 September 2015.

3. "CIPRO (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride) TABLETS" (https: //www.accessdata.fda. Gov / drugsatfda_docs / label / 2011 / 019537s074,020780s032lbl.pdf). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 13 October 2018.

4. Chohan Z.H., Sururan C. T., Scozzafava A. J. Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 2005, 20.303-307.

5. Akinremi C. A., Obaleye J. A., Adewuyi S., Adediji J. F. J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria. 2015, 40.5-11.

6. Liang-Cai Yu, Zi-Long Tang, Pin-Gui Yi & Sheng-Li Liu. J. Coord. Chem. 2009, 62, 894.

7. M.P. Lopez-Gresa, R. Ortiz, L. Perello, J. Latorre, M. Liu-Gonzalez, S. Garcia-Granda, M. Perez-Priede, E. Canton. J. Inorg. Biochem. 2002, 92, 65.

8. Jiang-Hong He, Dian-Zhen Sun, Dong-Rong Xiao, Shi-Wei Yan, Hai-Yan Chen, Xin Wang, Juan Yang, En-Bo Wang, Polyhedron 2012, 42, 24, doi: 10.1016 / j .poly.2012.04.022

9. Dong-Rong Xiao, En-Bo Wang, Hai-Yan An, Zhong-Min Su, Yang-Guang Li, Lei Gao, Chun-Yan Sun, Lin Xu. Chem.-Eur. J. 2005, 11.6673.

10. Guang-Zhi Shen, Gui-Hua Zou, Hai-Yan Li, Yu-Long Zou, J. Mol. Struct. 2019, 1198, 126831.doi: 10.1016 / j.molstruc.2019.07.078

11. Vasiliev A.D., Golovnev N.N. Zh. Strukt. Khim. (Russ.) (J. Struct. Chem.). 2013, 54, 553.

12. Eze F. I., Ajali U., Ukoha P.O. Int. J. Med. Chem. 2014, 19.doi: 10 1155/2014/735602.

13. XCalibur. Oxford Difraction Ltd. CrysAlisPro. Version., 2009.

14. G.M. Sheldrick. "Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL", Acta Cryst., 2015, C71, 3-8.

15. Mercury programm. C.F. Macrae, I.J. Bruno, J.A. Chisholm, P.R. Edington, P. McCabe, E. Pidcock, L. Rodriguez-Monge, R. Taylor, J. van de Streek, P.A. Wood. J. Appl. Crystallogr., 2008, 41, 466.

16. Turel, I. Leban, N. Bukovec. J. Inorganic Biochemistry. 1994, 56.273-282.

17. Zupančič M., Turel I., Bukovec P., White A.J.P. & Williams D.J. Croatica. Chemica. Acta 2001, 74, 61-74.

18. Zupančič M., Arčon I., Bukovec P., Kodre A. Croatica Chemica Acta.

To cite this article: А. D. Kudiyarova, J. M.  Ashurov, A. B. Ibragimov, V. K. Sabirov,  K. U. KHodjaniyazov. Crystal structure of the ciprofloxacin ionic complex with the cobalt(II)  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr2. - Pp.63-69. 

Received: 11.05.2021; Accepted: 31.05.2021; Published: 31.05.2021

* * *




UDK 543.34:546.726

U. A. Madatov,  S. B. Rakhimov, B. R. Normatov, Z. A.  Smanova


National University of Uzbekistan named after MirzoUlugbek, e-mail: о

Abstract. Background: the development of all spheres of production and introduction of new technogenic processes has leaded to anthropogenic impacts on the environment. In recent years concentration and separation methods have been increasingly used to solve problems of environmental pollution and to detect ions of heavy and toxic metals. Thus, elebration of new methods determination of metal ions using immobilized organic reagents has a great importance.

Purpose. Elabration of express, sensitive and selective sorption-spectrophotometric method for the determination of manganese (II) ions using immobilized alizarin-3-methylamino-N, N diacetic acid (A3-MA-NN-DA).

Methodology. Optical (sorption-spectrophotometric, reflection spectros- copy, atomic absorption); electrochemical and statistical methods of calculation, elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculation methods have been used.

Originality: the analytical characteristics of the immobilizatied organic reagent A3-MA-NN-DA are depended on the structure of the functional and analyticale active groups; on the base of the chemical-analytical properties of the immobilized azocompound it is proved that the interaction mechanism depends on the location of its functionally- active groups and the nature of the ionic bond: the chemistry of complexation reactions, the influence of the structure and nature of substituents the in immobilized A3-MA-NN-DA. have been determined and on the the base of sorption-spectrophotometric method for determination of manganese (II) ions.has been elaborated.

Findings . The possibility of using A3-MA-NN-DA, immobilized on modified polyacrylonitrile fiber PPG (Polyacrylonitrile +PolyethylPolyamine+Hexamethylenediamine) as a reagent for the determination of manganese ions and on its base, express-selective and sensitive sorption-spectrophotometric method were elaborated for detection of manganese ions will new immobilized azoreagent, which was used for the analysis of environmental objects (natural and drinking water, waste water, soils).

Key words: manganese(II), mini-spectrophotometer immobilization, Eye One Pro, diffuse reflection spectroscopy


- an improvement in the analytical characteristics of the determination of manganese ions is shown due to the immobilization of an organic reagent on a polymer sorbent;

-developed sorption-spectrophotometric method for the determination of manganese ions.


1. Yabe M.J. Oliveira E. "Heavy metals removal in industrial effluents by sequential adsorbent treatment", Adv.Env. Res, 7, 2003, pp. 263-272.

2. Vladimir V. Apyari *, Stanislava G. Dmitrienko, Yury A. Zolotov. Unusual application of common digital devices: Potentialities of Eye-One Pro mini-spectrophotometer - A monitor calibrator for registration of surface plasmon resonance bands of silver and gold nanoparticles in solid matrices Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical Sensors and Actuators B 188 (2013) 1109 - 1115.

3. Zolotov Yu. A., Tsizin G. I., Dmitrienko S. G., Morosanova E. I. Sorption concentration of micro-components from solutions.-Moscow: Science, 2007.-320 p. (in Russian)

4. Harvey D. Modern Analytical Chemistry. - Boston, 2000 .-- 798 s

5. Savvin S. B., Dedkova V. P., Shvoeva O. P. Sorption-spectroscopic and test-methods for determining metal ions in the solid phase of ion-exchange materials. The succ. of chem. -2000.-Vol. 69.No. 3.-P. 203. (in Russian)

6. Smanova Z. A., Khairullayeva M., Ishmanova Z. M. Sorption-photometric determination of lead by immobilized arsenazo // Bulletin of Tash STU. - Tashkent. 2009. -No. 3-4. - R. 245-248. (02.00.00, no. 11); (in Russian)

7. Ragimov S.B., Smanova Z.A. Determination оf tungsten by solid phase spectros copy using immobilized reagents // The american journal of applied P.244-254.

8. Apyari V. V., Dmitrienko S. G. Application of a digital camera and computer data processing for the determination of organic substances using diazotized polyurethane foam. // J. Anal. chemistry.-2008.-Vol. 63.-No. 6.-P. 581. (in Russian)

9. Monogarova O. V, Oskolok K.V, Apyari V.V. Colorimetry in chemical analysis. //J. Anal. chemistry. -2018.-Vol.73.-No. 11.-Pp. 857-867. (in Russian)

10. Apyari V.V, Dmitrienko S.G, Ostrovskaya V.M ,. Anaev E.K, Zolotov Y.A, Use of polyurethane foam and 3-hydroxy-7,8-benzo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline for determination of nitrite by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry // Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemis

11. Monogarova O.V, Oskolok K.V, Apyari V.V, Colorimetry in chemical analysis.//J. Anal. chemistry.-2018. -Vol. 73.-No. 11.-Pp. 857-867. (in Russian)

12. Madusmonova N.K., Smanova Z.A. Sorption-Spectroscopic determination of cadmium ions // International journal of advanced research in science, engineering and technology. -2020, www.ijaeset.cоm.

13. Zaporozhets O. A., Gaver O. M., Sukhan V. V. Immobilization of analytical reagents on the surface of carriers. // The suc. of chem.-1997.-Vol. 66.-No. 7.-P. 702. (in Russian)

14. Shishkin Yu.L., Dmitrienko S.G., Medvedeva O.M., Badakova S.A., Pyatkova L.N. Use of a scanner and digital image-processing software for the quantization of adsorbed substances. //J.Anal. chem.-2004.-V. 59.-No. 2.-P. 119.

15. Apyari V.V., Dmitrienko S.G. J.//Anal. chem.-2008.-V. 63.-No. 6.-P. 581. (in Russian)

16. Apyari V.V., Dmitrienko S.G., Ostrovskaya V.M., Anaev E.K., Zolotov Y.A. Anal. Bioanal. Chem.-2004.-V. 391.-P. 1978.

17. Ostrovskaya V. M., Prokopenko O. A., Sereda V. V., Marchenko D. Yu. Thesis of the report of the III All-Russian Conference "Analytics of Russia 2009" .- Krasnodar, September 27 – October 3.-2009 -P. 147 (in Russian)

18. Apyari V.V, Dmitrienko S.G, Batov I. V ,. Zolotov Yu. A. Mini-spectrophotometer Eye_One Pro as an alternative to the diffuse reflection spectrometer.// Journal of analytical chemistry.-2011.-Vol. 66. -No. 2.- Pp. 148-154. (in Russian)

To cite this article: U. A. Madatov,  S. B. Rakhimov, B. R. Normatov, Z. A.  Smanova. Sorption-spectroscopic determination of manganese (II) ions by immobilized alizarin-3-methylamino n, n-disyric acid  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr2. - Pp.70-76. 

Received: 15.04.2021; Accepted: 27.05.2021; Published: 31.05.2021

* * *

UDK 543.251:541.25:541.13:541.8

U. G. Akhmajonov, M. N. Sayfiev, N. Atakulova, D. A. Ziyaev


1Национальный университет Узбекистана,100174, г. Ташкент, ВузгородокНУУз, 2Алмалыкский горно-металлургический комбинат, E-mail:

Abstract. Background. The created modified carbon-paste electrodes (UPE) in their metrological characteristics are not inferior to the electrodes used in the practice of electroanalytical chemistry. Their application has a wide range of practical applications in electrochemistry due to the selection of a selective modifier.

Purpose. Establishment of the influence of the nature and concentration of the analytes to be determined on the chemical and analytical properties of modified electrodes and the development of an inversion voltammetric method for the determination of antimony on its basis.

Methodology. Modified electrodes and antimony ions were selected as objects of research. The study was carried out using the stripping voltammetric method.

Originality. New stripping voltammetric methods and electrodes with modified reagents for the determination of antimony have been proposed. The effect of modification of the investigated organic compounds on their chemical-analytical properties is shown.

Findings. An inversion voltammetric method for the determination of antimony using an electrode modified with 8-hydroxyquinoline has been developed. The optimal conditions for the determination of antimony are found and the conditions for obtaining modified electrodes are optimized. The technique has been tested on various types of real samples.

Key words: modified electrodes, antimony, 8-hydroxyquinoline, EDTA, mercury-dripping electrode, stripping voltammetric method.


- the effect of modification of organic agents on the properties of electrodes;

- stripping voltammetric methods for the determination of antimony;

- the method is applicable for monitoring environmental object.


1. Toropova V.F., Polyakova Yu. N. Mercury electrodes used in electroanalytical chemistry.-M: Nauka, 1973. P. 186 - 194.(in Russian)

2. Fadeeva V.I., Zolotov Yu.A., Shekhovtsova T.N., Ivanov V.M., Barbalat Yu.A., Prokhorova G.V., Pasekova N.A., Zheleznova A.A., Dolmanova I.F.,. Gormash A.V., Brykina G.D. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. In 2 volumes, 2nd book.- M: Higher school, 2001.-463 p.(in Russian)

3. Otter F., Shtulik K., Yulakova E. Inversion voltammetry.-M: Mir, 1980. -278 p.(in Russian)

4. Ziyaev D.A., Dadomatov A.L. Influence of the nature and concentration of modifiers on the modes and resources of work of the carbon-paste electrodes created by us. // Kimyo faculty prof. Kituvchilari va yosh olimlarning ilmiy-amaliy conf. materiallari. –Toshkent.-2010. S.19-21.(in Russian)

5. Gevorgyan A.M., Ziyaev A.L., Nagaev R.N. Optimization of the ratios of the components of the mixture of coal paste and modifier when creating electrodes used in the stripping voltammetric determination of indium and thorium. // IzMU Yosh olimlarning ilmiy amaliy conf.(in Russian)

6. "Biology va kimöning dolzarb muammolari" .- Toshkent.-2009.-p. 156-158.(in Russian)

7. Gevorgyan AM, Ziyaev DA, Kalyadin VG Inversion-voltammetric determination of antimony in real objects using carbon-paste electrodes modified with oxyquinoline.(in Russian)

8. Brainina Kh.Z., Neiman E.Ya., Slepushkin V.V. Inversion electroanalytical methods.-M: Chemistry, 1988.-239 p.(in Russian)

9. Plambek J. Electrochemical methods of analysis.-M: Mir, 1985.-504 p.(in Russian)

10. Gevorgyan A.M., Ziyaev D.A., Asrarov A.S., Karaev R.M. Stripping voltammetric determination of indium. // Uzbek. chem. zhurn.-2008.- N 1.-С.55-59.(in Russian)

11. Gevorgyan AM, Ziyaev D.A., Nagaev R.R. On the question of stripping voltammetric determination of indium in individual acids and their mixtures. // Dokl. AN RUz.-2009.- N 6.-С.56-58.(in Russian)

12. Gevorgyan A.M., Ziyaev D.A., Dushanov R.O. Analytical determination of thorium by stripping voltammetry. // Uzbek. chem. journal-2009. - N 2.-С.25-27.(in Russian)

13. Gevorgyan A.M., Ziyaev D, A., Kalyadin V.G., Kireev G.V. Analytical capabilities of stripping voltammetry in the determination of indium. // Uzbek. chem. zhurn.-2009.- No. 5.-P.61-64.(in Russian)

14. Gevorgyan A.M., Ziyaev D.A., Kireev G.V. Analytical capabilities of stripping voltammetry in the determination of antimony in industrial materials. Chemical industry.-Т.87.- N 5.-2010.-С.261-264.(in Russian)

15. Ziyaev D.A. Stripping voltammetric determination of indium in the presence of cadmium and zinc. // Chemistry and chemical technology.-2011.- N 4.-С. 70-72.(in Russian)

16. Aleksander, G., Anna, T, Boris, K, Anna, G., Nikolay, S., Alexander, V. (2018). Direct Quantification of Major and Trace Elements in Geological Samples by Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with a Pulsed Glow Discharge.// Analytical Letters.-Vol. 15. -R. 835-850.

17. Shaidarova, L.G., Chelnokova, I.A., Ilyina, M.A., Gedmina, A.V., Budnikov, G.K. (2017). Amperometric detection of hydroxypurines on an electrode modified with a composite based on mixed-valent oxides of ruthenium and cobalt under conditions of flow-injection analysis. // Zh. Analyte. Chemistry.-T.72.-No. 1.- P.91-96.(in Russian)

To cite this article: M. M U. G. Akhmajonov, M. N. Sayfiev, N. Atakulova, D. A. Ziyaev. Determination of antimony ions with carbon paste electrodes modified with  various organic reagents  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr2. - Pp.77-83. 

Received: 07.05.2021; Accepted: 25.05.2021; Published: 31.05.2021

* * *

UDK 623.6 (78.25.12)

M. M. Mukhitdinov, Sh. N. Mukhamedov


Академия Вооруженных Сил Республики Узбекистан, Ташкент, Узбекистан. е-mail:

Abstract. Background. Nowadays we have lots of methods to finding radioactive and high toxic substances in the area. Even those al of these methods not be able to cover of modern requirements of to finding and estimate radioactive and chemical condition on time. In developed countries focused on developing of methods of remote detection of the radioactive and highly toxic substances.

Purposes. To develop of methods of remote detection of the radioactive and highly toxic substances in analyzing area.

Methodology. Quantity and rotundity analyze of radioactive and highly toxic substances to use of IR-Furye spectrometric analyzing methods.

Originality. In case of all known methods of finding radioactive and high toxic substances first time have suggesting to use sensory detectors with grafens.

Findings. Has been created sample of sensory detector which based on spectrometric analyzing methods.

Key words: ammiak, chlore, ftourid unities, spirit unities, glicins.


- finding high molecularly unities in atomic condition for a distance.

-  samples of sarin, soman and iprit in combat concentrations.


1. Vasiliev B.I., Mannun U.M. IR lidars of differential absorption for ecological monitoring of the environment // Kv. electr. -2006. -T. 36. - N 9. -WITH. 801-820.(in Russian)

2. Gorelik D.O., Konopelko L.A., Pankov E.D. Environmental monitoring. Optoelectronic devices and systems: In 2 volumes. -S-Pb .: "Krismas +", 1998. -T. I. -735 p. -T. II. -592 s.(in Russian)

3. Zvereva N.A., Nabiev Sh.Sh., Ponomarev Yu.N. Structure and properties of molecular complexes of water with small gaseous constituents of the atmosphere. -Tomsk: Publishing house of IOA SB RAS, 2003.140 p.(in Russian)

4. Zuev V.E., Zuev V.V. Remote optical sensing of the atmosphere. Modern problems of atmospheric optics. T. 8. -S-Pb: Gidrometeoizdat, 1992.230 p.(in Russian)

5. Kopytin Yu.D., Nosov V.V., Antipov A.B. and others. Remote methods of forecasting oil, ore and technogenic anomalies by geoatmospheric manifestations. -Tomsk: IOA SO RAN, 2000. -314 p.(in Russian)

6. Morozov A.N., Svetlichny S.I. Fundamentals of Fourier - spectroradiometry. -M .: Nauka, 2006.280 p.(in Russian)

7. Nabiev Sh.Sh., Ponomarev Yu.N. Spectrochemical aspects of remote laser monitoring of emergency emissions at nuclear fuel cycle facilities // Atmosphere and Ocean Optics. -1998. -T. 11.- N 12. -WITH. 1274-1280.(in Russian)

8. Nabiev Sh.Sh., Bolyasov D.A. Analytical capabilities of the differential absorption and scattering method for remote diagnostics of optical fibers using near-IR diode lasers // Tez. report Congress of Russian Analysts. -Moscow. -2010. -WITH. 200.(in Russian)

9. Pshezhetskiy S.Ya., Dmitriev M.T. Radiation physicochemical processes in the air. -M .: Atomizdat, 1978.-181 p.(in Russian)

10. Rabinovich E., Belford R. Spectroscopy and photochemistry of uranyl compounds. -M .: Atomizdat, 1968.-343 p.(in Russian)

11. Rice W.G. Basics of remote sensing. -M .: Technosphere, 2006. -335 p.(in Russian)

12. Bachmann T.M. Hazardous substances and human health. -Stuttgart: Elsevier, 2006. -612 p.

13. Borst W.L., Zipf E.C. Cross Section for Electron-Impact Excitation of the (0,0) First Negative Band of N2 + from Threshold to 3 KeV // Phys. Rev. A. -1970. -Vol. 1. - N 3.-P. 834-840.

14. Bousquet R. R., Chu P. M., DaBell R.S., et al. Trends in microwave spectroscopy for the detection of chemical agents // Sensors. J. IEEE. -2005. -Vol. 5. -N4.-P. 656-664.

15. Carson P.A., Mumford C.J. Hazardous chemicals handbook. -L .: Butterwords, 2002. -608 p.

To cite this article: M. M. Mukhitdinov, Sh. N. Mukhamedov. Modern trends in the development of methods of remote detection of the radioactive and highly toxic substances// Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr2. - Pp.84-91. 

Received: 20.05.2021; Accepted: 27.05.2021; Published: 31.05.2021

* * *


236 PDF