Uzbek Chemical Journal




UDK 541.123.4

1Zh. Sh. Bobozhonov, 1Zh. S. Shukurov, 1A. S. Togasharov, 2N. K. Olimov


1Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan, 100170 Tashkent, Mirzo Ulugbek, 77-a, 2Toshkent Pharmaceuticals Institute, Uzbekistan, 100015 Toshkent, Oybek, 45, Е-mail:

Abstract. Background: Currently, it is an urgent task not only to carry out timely harvesting, but also to achieve a high and high-quality harvest. At the same time, it is important to carry out timely agrochemical measures, as well as to protect plants from all kinds of diseases and pests. The use of nutrients and insecticidal substances containing defoliants lead to accelerated maturation and protection of the crop from various pests, as well as the production of high-quality cotton fiber.

Purpose. Physico-chemical substantiation of the process of obtaining a new defoliant with defoliating insecticidal activity based on calcium dicarbamidochlorate, ethanol and acetamipride.

Methodology. The determination of chlorate ions was carried out by volumetric permanganatometric and calcium - by comlpexonometric methods. The viscosity of the solutions was measured using an HPV viscometer, and the pH of the solutions was determined using the pH meter FE 20 METTLER TOLEDO.

Originality. Polythermal diagrams and "composition-properties" of the systems were created based on the study of solubility in the system with the participation of water, dicarbamidochlorate of calcium, ethanol and acetamipride.

Findings. The technological processes of obtaining a defoliant with defoliating, nutritional and insecticidal activity based on dicarbamidochlorate of calcium, ethanol and acetamipride are justified. The physicochemical properties of solutions of the systems [50% Ca(ClO3)2٠2CO(NH2)2 + 50%H2O] - [90% C2H5OH + 10% C10H11ClN4] depending on the ratio of the components.

Keywords: acetamipride, calcium tetraaquadicarbamidochlorate, ethanol, solubility diagram, defoliants, viscosity, density.


- solubility of components in the aqueous system was studied;

-  it consists of calcium tetraaquadicarbamidochlorate and a 10% alcohol solution of acetamipride;

 - the rheological properties of this system have been studied.


1. Shera P.S., Kumar V., Jindal V. Sucking Pests of Cotton // In: Omkar (eds) Sucking Pests of Crops. -Singapore: Springer. - 2020.- P. 249-284.

2. Rajendran T.P., Birah A., Burange P.S. Insect Pests of Cotton // In: Omkar (eds) Pests and Their Management. -Singapore: Springer. - 2018.-P. 361-411.

3. Anees M., Shad S.A. Insect Pests of Cotton and Their Management // In: Ahmad S., Hasanuzza-man M. (eds) Cotton Production and Uses. -Singapore: Springer. - 2020.-R. 177-212.

4. Noreen S., Mahmood S., Faiz S. et al. Plant Growth Regulators for Cotton Production in Changing Environment // In: Ahmad S., Hasanuzzaman M. (eds) Cotton Production and Uses. Singapore: Springer. - 2020.-R. 119-144.

5. Shukurov Zh.S., Togasharov A.S., Askarova M.K. and others. Complex defoliants with physiologically active and insecticidal properties. - T .: Navruz, 2019. (in Russian)

6. Xi Zhao, Ali Farajtabar, Hongkun Zhao, et al. // J. Chem. Eng.-2019.-V. 64. -No 8. -P. 3505. (in Russian)

7. Adilov Z.Kh. Chemistry and technology for producing chlorate-containing defoliants with insecticidal properties: Author's abstract. Cand. those. sciences. - Tashkent, 2010.-25 p. (in Russian)

8. Shukurov Z.S., Askarova M.K., Tukhtaev S. // Russ. J. Inorg. Chem.-2018.-V. 63. -No 2. -P. 275. (in Russian)

9. M.N. Nabiev, R. Shammasov, S. Tukhtaev and others. A.S. 1143691 USSR. Method of obtaining chlorate-chloride calcium defoliant. Discoveries. Inventions. -1985. -No. 9. -P. 84. (in Russian)

10. Melnikov N.N., Novozhilov K.V., Belan S.R. and other Handbook of pesticides. -M .: Chemistry, 1985.- 352 p. (in Russian)

11. Schwarzenbach G., Flash G. Complexometric titration. // M .: Chemistry, 1970. - 360 p. (in Russian)

12. Klimova V.A. Basic micromethods for the analysis of organic compounds.

-M .: Chemistry, 1975.- 224 p. (in Russian)

13. Trunin A.S. Petrova D.G. Visual-polythermal method. // Kuibyshev Polytechnic. Ins-t. -Kuibyshev.-1977.-94 c./Dep. in VINITI No. 584-78. (in Russian)

To cite this article: Zh. Sh. Bobozhonov, Zh. S. Shukurov, A. S. Togasharov, N. K. Olimov. Study of the solubility of the system Ca(CIO3)2٠2CO(NH2)2 - [90 % C2H5OH + 10 % C10H11CIN4] - H2O // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr1. - Pp.3-9. 

Received: 16.03.2021; Accepted: 01.04.2021; Published: 02.04.2021

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UDK 661.832.432

F. H. Normamatov, А.U. Erkayev, Z. Q.Toirov, B. X. Kucharov


Tashkent Institute of Chemical Technology,

Abstract. Background. The task of developing a method for producing potassium nitrate is to conduct a physicochemical study of the optimal conditions for the conversion, filtration and crystallization processes with a high yield of potassium into the product.

Purpose. The aim of the study is to establish the optimal technological parameters for the production of potassium nitrate by conversion methods from potassium chloride and ammonium nitrate.

Methodology.  At the end of the conversion process, the system was cooled with stirring at a stirrer rotation speed and temperature reduction of 50-100 rpm and 2-4 °C/min, respectively. The solid product and liquid phase were analyzed by well-known methods of chemical and physicochemical analysis.

Originality. The effect of technological parameters on the yield of potassium oxide and the quality of potassium nitrate obtained by the conversion method from potassium chloride and ammonium nitrate has been studied for the first time. Physicochemical studies of the processes of conversion of potassium chloride with ammonium nitrate, filtration of the suspension and crystallization of potassium nitrate have been carried out.

Findings. It is shown that in the temperature range of 5-20 ° C the duration of the conversion of potassium chloride with ammonium nitrate remains practically unchanged. The optimal technological parameters for the formation of large prismatic crystals of potassium nitrate have been established, providing a high product yield with a minimum chlorine content

Key words: chlorine-free fertilizers, exchange decomposition, potassium nitrate, suspensions, mixing, structure, composition.


- the mode of heat treatment of potassium nitrate is determined;

- optimal heat treatment mode: 132.8 and 339 ° C for 30 minutes;

- an increase in temperature to 132.8 ° C increases the content of nitrite ions to 0.01%.


1. Turakulov B. B., Erkayev A. U., Kucharov B. X., Toirov Z. K. Physical-chemical and Technological Bases of Producing Pure Potassium Hydroxide in Combined Method.// International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology -Vol. 29. -No. 6s (2020): Vol 29 No 6s (2020) (Special Issue) http: // sersc. org / journals / index. php / IJAST / issue / view / 275. - P. 1126 - 1134.http: //

2. Zhovlieva M.A., Erkaev A.U., Kucharov B.Kh., Ismoilov D., Eshmetova D. Studying the process of obtaining potassium sulfate. // Materials of the republican remote online conference on the topic "Scientific and practical research in Uzbekistan" part-16.-Tashkent.-2020. –P.38-40. (in Russian)

3. Normamatov F.Kh., Erkaev AU, Toirov ZK, Sharipova Kh.T. Investigation of the process of obtaining potassium chloride from sylvinite in the presence of ammonia // Uzbek chemical journal. -2009. - No. 2. - P.26-28. (in Russian)

4. V.V.Pechkovsky, H.M. Aleksandrovich, G.F.Pinaev. Potash fertilizer technology. Under the general editorship of Doctor of Technical Sciences. prof. V.V. Pechkovsky. Minsk: Higher School Publishing House, 1968.225-227s. (in Russian)

5. Authorship certificate 1248650, MPKS01D9 / 10, V01J47 / 02. Method for producing potassium nitrate. Publ. 07.08.86, bull. No. 29 (in Russian)

6.A.S. 1572997, IPC S01D9 / 08. Method for producing potassium nitrate. - Publ. 06.23.90, Bul. No. 23, 19907. (in Russian)

7. Crystal structures / Ed. R.W.G. Wyckoff. 2nd ed. Interscience Publ., N. Y. (1964) V. 2.588p.

8. Bousfield B. Surface preparation and microscopy of materials. –Wiley: New York., 1992

9. Patrick Echlin Handbook of Sample Preparation for Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, Cambridge Analytical Microscopy, UK, Springer. -2009. -330p.

10. José M. Fernández, César Plaza, Alfredo Polo, Alain F. Plante Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG - DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application. -January 2012.-P. 158-164.

11. Barbara Charmas1, Karolina Kucio1, Volodymyr Sydorchuk2, SvitlanaKhalameida 2, Magdalena Ziezio1 and Aldona Nowicka1. Characterization of Multimodal Silicas Using TG / DTG / DTA, Q-TG, and DSC Methods. Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chromatographic Methods, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Maria Curie-Skłodowska Sq. 3, 20-031 Lublin, Poland;

12. Makoto Otsuka and Hajime Kinoshita. Quantitative Determination of Hydrate Content of Theophylline Powder by Chemometric X-ray Powder Diffraction Analysis. // AAPS Pharm Sci. Tech. 2010 March; 11 (1): 204-211.

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To cite this article: F. H. Normamatov, А.U. Erkayev, Z. Q.Toirov, B. X. Kucharov. Research of the main stages of potassium nitrate production by the conversion method  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr1. - Pp. 9-15. 

Received: 04.03.2021; Accepted: 18.03.2021; Published: 02.04.2021

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UDK 631.85.661

U. Sh. Теmirov,  Sh. S. Namazov, N. H. Usanbaev


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

Abstract. Background. At present, on the soils where the agricultural crops of the Republic are grown, phosphorus and potash fertilizers are used much less than necessary, organomineral fertilizers containing humic substances are practically not used. Especially, the non-use of humus-containing fertilizers leads to a gradual loss of soil fertility, and its restoration is an extremely complex, long and laborious process, at the same time, the Kyzylkum phosphorite complex contains a huge amount of phosphorite waste with a content of 10-15% P2O5, as well as phosphorite flour containing 17-18% P2O5. Their processing into high-quality complex organomineral fertilizers using waste from livestock farms and their use in agriculture is relevant.

Purpose. Study of the process of obtaining complex organomineral fertilizers containing humic substances, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other macro- and microelements in a balanced ratio based on cattle manure, phosphate rock (PR) of the Central Kyzylkum (CK) with the addition of various mineral fertilizers by composting.

Methodology. Preparation of composts by mixing cattle manure with PR and with the addition of various mineral fertilizers, studying the composition of the resulting fertilizers using known methods, depending on the mass ratio and exposure time.

Originality. For the first time, the degree of humification of organic substances in cattle manure, the transition of P2O5 into an assimilable form for plants, the release of organic substances and nitrogen-containing compounds into the gas phase during composting of manure with PR and the addition of various mineral fertilizers were studied. The optimal conditions for obtaining complex organomineral fertilizers containing humic substances, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other macro- and microelements in a balanced ratio have been determined.

Findings. Compost was prepared on the basis of manure, phosphate rock of the Central Kyzylkum desert and the addition of various mineral fertilizers at mass ratios of manure: PR: mineral fertilizers = 100: 10: (0.5-4). The kinetics and degree of transformation of the organic part of manure into humic substances and indigestible forms of phosphorus into a form assimilable for plants in phosphorite flour have been determined. Losses of organic matter and nitrogen in composts have been determined. It is shown that with an increase in the duration of composting, the formation of humic substances and mobile forms of phosphorus increases, with an increase in the amount of mineral fertilizers in composts, the loss of organic matter and nitrogen decreases, and the degree of conversion of the organic part of manure into humic substances increases. The use of PR, urea and potassium chloride as an additive to composts with a ratio of manure: PR: additive = 100: 10: 4: 2 after the compost has been kept for 90 days in finished fertilizers, the content of the general form of P2O5 decreases from 2.15 to 1.94, and the content nitrogen and potassium increases from 0.3 to 1.85 and from 0.56 to 1.73%, respectively. In addition, with an increase in the holding time of complex mixtures, regardless of the type of additive used in this work, the relative content of the assimilable form of phosphorus in them increases. So, with the addition of 4% ammonium sulfate and 2% potassium chloride after 90-day composting, the content of P2O5usv. increases from the initial - 16.57 (PR) to 69.75%. These additives also have a positive effect on increasing the degree of humification of organic substances. Moreover, with an increase in the amount of additives, the degree of humification of organic substances increases. So, in composts without the addition of mineral fertilizers, i.e. with the ratio of manure: PR: (NH2)2CO: KCl = 100: 10: 0: 0, the degree of humification of organic substances was 67.75%, and with the addition of 4% carbamide and 2% potassium chloride, the degree of humification of organic substances was 72.47% .       

Keywords: manure, phosphate rock, composting, phosphorus, calcium, humus, humic acid, fulvic acid, mineral fertilizers, complex organic fertilizer.


-              compost was prepared by mixing manure with phosphate rock and adding various mineral fertilizers;

- their composition was studied and the optimal conditions for obtaining complex organomineral fertilizers containing humic substances, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other macro- and microelements in a balanced ratio were determined.



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7. Zhukov A.I. Reproduction of humus in intensive farming // Agrochemistry. - 1991. - No. 3. - P. 121-133. (in Russian)

8. Derzhavin L.M., Polyakov A.N., Florinsky M.A. and others. The content of humus in arable soils of the USSR // Khimizatsiya agriculture. – 1988. – No 6. - P. 7-8. (in Russian)

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11. Sh. Namazov, U. Temirov, N. Usanbayev Intensive technology for processing bird litter in organomineral fertilizers // Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Khim. Khim. Tekhnol. [Russ. J. Chem. & Chem. Tech.]. -2020. -V. 63. -N 12. -P. 85-94.

12. Ovchinnikov L.N. Investigation of the process of obtaining complex granular organomineral fertilizers of prolonged action based on peat // Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Khim. Khim. Tekhnol. -2017. -V. 60. -N 9.100 Izv. universities. Chemistry and chem. technology. 2017.Vol. 60. 9 DOI: 10.6060 / tcct.2017609.5600. (in Russian)

13. Pestov N.E. Physicochemical properties of granular and powdery chemical products. - M .: AN SSSR, 1947. - 239 p. (in Russian)

14. Guide to practical training on the technology of inorganic substances / M.Ye. Pozin., B.A. Kopylev., E.S. Tumarkina., G.V. Belchenko - L .: Goskhimizdat, 1963.-376 p. (in Russian)

15. U.Sh.Temirov, A.M. Reimov, Sh.S.Namazov, N.Kh.Usanbaev, Sh.Yu. Nomozov. Obtaining phosphorus-containing organomineral fertilizers. // Uzbek chemical journal. - 2017. - No. 4. - S. 42-49. (in Russian)

16. U.Sh. Temirov, Sh.S. Namazov, N.H. Usanbaev, B. E. Sultonov, A. M. Reymov. Organic-mineral Fertilizer Based on Chicken Manure and Phosphorite from Central Kyzylkum // Chemical Science International Journal. -Volume 24.-Issue 3. -USA. - 2018. - P. 1-7.

17. Temirov U.Sh., Namazov Sh.S., Reimov A.M., Seitnazarov A.R., Bauatdinov S., Beglov B.M. Compost based on waste - cattle manure and off-balance phosphorite ore of the Central Kyzyl Kum. // Bulletin of the Karakalpak branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. -Nukus. -2017. - No. 3. - P. 54-62. (in Russian)

18. Dragunov S.S. Analysis methods of humic fertilizers // Humic fertilizers. Theory and practice of their application. - Kharkov: Publishing house of Kharkiv State University, 1957. - P. 42-55. (in Russian)

To cite this article: U. Sh. Теmirov,  Sh. S. Namazov, N. H. Usanbaev. Production of complex fertilizers based on livestock waste, phosphorite flour of Central Kyzylkum and mineral fertilizers  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr1. - Pp. 15-26. 

Received: 04.03.2021; Accepted: 18.03.2021; Published: 02.04.2021


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UDK 663.551

O. H. Abdurakhimov, R. O. Akhrorova, D. Zh. Zhumaeva, I. D. Eshmetov


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

Abstract. Background. The study of new possibilities for energy saving and time saving when activating adsorbents using microwave radiation (MVR) is the main issue of microwave chemistry, as well as the achievements of chemistry, physics, biology and other fields of science.

Purpose. Activation of crushed coals to obtain highly adsorption adsorbents for the purification of aqueous-alcoholic solutions from impurities by microwave radiation.

Methodology. Activation of coal adsorbents from local raw materials, performed by thermal treatment with microwave radiation, in a laboratory mode. During the heat treatment of the adsorbent, the dependences of moisture loss on time are determined. The regeneration of carbon adsorbents was carried out in a microwave oven at a power mode of 600 W for 5-10 minutes, in a temperature range of 600-800 ° C, while the frequency of microwave radiation was equal to 2450 Hz.

Originality. It was found that the degree of regeneration (S) upon activation of the adsorbent by microwave radiation is directly proportional to the time (τ) of the process and the value of the power (W) of the radiation. The optimal technical parameters of the process of regeneration of spent carbon adsorbents by the method of microwave radiation have been determined, which are 40-50 minutes in processing time, and 600 W in terms of MVI power.

Findings. The most active samples are obtained at a temperature of 800 ° C, processed for 1-1.5 hours. The purification of aqueous-alcoholic solutions with carbon adsorbents was carried out by physical sorption, in which the effective removal of various polar substances is carried out in the internal pores of the sorbent, where they accumulate. Their accumulation leads to deactivation of the adsorbent and determines the need for coal regeneration by steam impregnation and drying.

Key words: adsorbent, aqueous-alcoholic solution, microwave radiation, regeneration, activation, degree of activation, activation temperature, time


- microwave radiation is more efficient than traditional methods of coal regeneration;

- it accelerates the recovery of the sorption properties of the spent adsorbents;

- the method is recommended for the regeneration of waste coal.


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6. Konovalov NP, Konovalov PN, Khaidurova AA Microwave radiation in coal drying technology. Izvestiya vuzov. Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology. -2015.- No. 1 (12) .- p. 74-79. (in Russian)

7. Abdurakhimov A.Kh., Zhumaeva D.Zh. Investigation of the physicochemical and adsorption properties of carbon adsorbents for the purification of aqueous-alcoholic solutions from impurities // Uzbek chemical journal. - No. 4. -2019.- P.2-8. (in Russian)

8. Paigamov R.A., Salikhanova D.S., Eshmetov I.D., Zhumaeva D.Zh., Obtaining coal adsorbents from wood of local varieties // Uzbekiston kimyo journals.-2018.-No2.-Tashkent.-P. 28-32. (in Russian)

9. Paygamov R.A., Jumaeva D.J., Kuldasheva Sh.A., Eshmetov I.D. Obtaining import-substituting adsorbents based on charcoal // Journal Chemical technology monitoring and control.-Tashkent.-2018.-no. 1-2.-P. 56-60.

10. Abdurakhimov A.Kh., Zhumaeva D.Zh., Paygamov R., Eshmetov I.D., Salikhanova D.S. Selection of local raw materials for the production of carbon adsorbents for the purification of aqueous-alcoholic solutions // Materials of the conference - 2019. - II-volume.-P.5-7. (in Russian)

11. Jumaeva D.J., Aymurzaeva L.G., Eshmetov I.D., Salikhanova D.S., Jumabaev B.A. Reagent Method For Wastewater Treatment In Textile Industries // International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation.-2020.-Volume 24.- Issue7.-P.8119-8128 DOI: 10.37200 / IJPR / V24I7 / PR270788. https: // www.

12. Jumaeva Dilnoza J., Eshmetov I.D., Jumabaev B.A., Agzamkhodjayev A.A. Сarbon adsorbents on the basis of brown coal of Angren for cleaning industrial wastewater. // Journal Of chemical technology and metallurgy. - Bulgaria.-2016.-Vol.51.- N2. -P. 210-214.

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To cite this article: O. H. Abdurakhimov, R. O. Akhrorova, D. Zh. Zhumaeva, I. D. Eshmetov. Possibilities of regeneration of carbon adsorbent by microwave radiation // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr1. - Pp. 26-33. 

Received: 04.03.2021; Accepted: 25.03.2021; Published: 02.04.2021


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UDK 66.097.3(088.8)

А. R. Zhumanazarov, V. P. Gouro, A.T. Dadahodzhaev, M. A. Ibragimova, S .B. Lyapin


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, e-mail:

Abstract. Background. At the enterprises of the metallurgical and chemical industries there are man-made cadmium-containing wastes. Thus, JSC Navoiazot annually stores 80-120 tons of spent "Cadmium-Calcium-Phosphate Catalyst (CCP)" TU 113-03-00209510-108-2006, the service life of which is 6 months.

Purpose: to develop methods of extraction of cadmium from the spent CCP catalyst with subsequent use as a cadmium raw material in a new cycle of CCP synthesis.

Methodology. The fractions of CdO, CaO, and P2O5 in the spent CCP were determined on an ICP-MS spectrometer. The CCP samples were dissolved in acids, with the separation of carbon on a filter from the CCP decomposition solutions. Sorption of cations was carried out on Purolite C100H resin.

Originality. A method for extracting Cd from spent CCP has been developed; a method for the synthesis of CCP from recovered cadmium has been developed; a successful pilot test of the obtained catalyst was carried out.

Findings. Information was obtained on the optimal modes of processing of the spent CCP catalyst. A technological scheme for the isolation of the intermediate product synthesis of CCP - cadmium concentrate is proposed.

Key words: cadmium-calcium-phosphate catalyst; method testing, sorption, cation exchanger, selective extraction


- a method for extracting Cd from spent CCP has been developed;

- a method for the synthesis of CCP from recovered cadmium has been developed;

- an experimental-industrial test of the methods was carried out.


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12. Jasmin Shah, Muhammad Rasul Jan, Mansoor Khan & Salma Amir. Removal and recovery of cadmium from aqueous solutions using magnetic nanoparticle-modified sawdust: kinetics and adsorption isotherm studies.-P.9736-9744.-Received 22 Jul 2014, Accepted 11 Mar 2015.-Published online: 07 Apr 2015. https: / /

13. Gorin Yu.A. Goskhimhydrat, TK (1959). - S. 8 (194) - 14 (200); T2 (1959). - S. 85 (177) - 88 (180). (in Russian)

14. Guro V.P., Ibragimova M.A., Fuzailova F.N., Dadakhodzhaev A.T. Production of Cadmium-Calcium-Phosphate Catalyst of Acetaldehyde Synthesis // Open Access Journal of Chemistry.-V. 2.-Issue 3.-2018.-PP 20-23, ISSN 2637-5834.http: // www. sryahwapublications. com / open-access-journal-of-chemistry / volume-2-issue-3

15. Lyapin S.B., Ibragimova M.A., Guro V.P., Zhumanazarov A.R. Determination of cadmium in technological solutions for the processing of spent KKF catalyst // Uzbek. chem. f. -2020. -No 1. -P. 83-88. (in Russian)

16. Ibragimova M.A., Lyapin S.B., Guro V.P., Zhumanazarov A.R. Extraction and processing of cadmium from the spent catalyst of JSC "NAVOIYAZOT". // International scientific and practical conference "Modern trends in the theory and practice of mining and processing of mineral and technogenic raw materials." - November 6-8, 2019. Yekaterinburg, Russia. - P. 438-439. (in Russian)

17. Ibragimova M.A., Lyapin S.B., Zhumanazarov A.R., Guro V.P., Dadahodzhaev A.T. Testing a method for extracting cadmium from a spent cadmium-calcium-phosphate catalyst // Uzbek. chem. j. - 2020, -No2. – P.24-29. (in Russian)

18. Lyapin S.B., Ibragimova M.A., Guro V.P., Zhumanazarov A.R. Purification of technological solutions for the processing of spent KKF catalyst from impurities of phosphate ions by the method of ion exchange // Uzbek. chem. j. - 2020. -No5. - P.44-48. (in Russian)

19. Patent application RUz "Method for extracting cadmium from spent cadmium-calcium-phosphate catalyst". Reg. No. IAP 2019 0251 dated 10.06.2019. Guro V.P., Ibragimova M.A., Lyapin S.B., Zhuraev N.Ye., Zhumanazarov R.B., Dadahodzhaev A.T., Zhumanazarov A.R.

To cite this article: А. R. Zhumanazarov, V. P. Gouro, A.T. Dadahodzhaev, M. A. Ibragimova, S .B. Lyapin. Processing of cadmium-containing man-generated waste // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr1. - Pp. 33-40. 

Received: 25.03.2021; Accepted: 31.03.2021; Published: 02.04.2021


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UDK 628.31

D. A. Azimova, D. S. Salikhanova, I. D. Eshmetov, F. E. Umirov


1Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 2Navoi State Mining Institute E-mail:

Abstract. Вackground. Currently, industrial enterprises of the republic accumulate a huge amount of waste water, but their purification and return to the system is urgent. However, cleaning them is multi-step and time consuming.

Purpose: Assessment of the possibility of treating waste water from metallurgy with waste from the production of sucrose.

Methodology. Comparative study of colloidal-chemical parameters of the obtained samples of thermolysis defecate using standard methods of analysis.

Originality. It has been established that the main pollutants are substances entering wastewater from metal processing operations, as well as heavy metal ions. The investigated effluents had high concentrations of dissolved salts and suspended solids. Laboratory tests of experimental samples of thermally processed defect in waste water have been carried out. It has been established that the thermal processed defecate is effective for the purification of wastewater from heavy metal ions. The consumption of thermally modified defecate was 2%, while the degree of wastewater treatment from heavy metals was at least 90% for Be, Al, Mn, As, Mo, U, Zh, Th ions, 70% for Ni, Se, Sr, Pb ions , 40% for ions Cu, Cr, Co.

Findings. It was established that thermolysis of defecate up to 650 oС increases its adsorption properties, due to which it became possible to return valuable components from waste water.

Key words: defecate, waste water, purification, pH, turbidity, degree of frequency, modification, roasting.


- thermolysis increases the sorption capacity;

- the resulting modified defect purifies the waste water as much as possible;

- purified water can be used as technical water.


1. Ashirov A.G. Ion exchange treatment of waste water, solutions and gases. L .: Chemistry. 1983.- 295 p. (in Russian)

2. Proskuryakov V.A., Schmidt L.I. Wastewater treatment in the chemical industry. L .: Chemistry. 1997 .-- 463 p. (in Russian)

3. Patent No. 2040486 Russia., Method of purification of waste water from cyanide compounds / M.R. Kamalov, A.U. Isaeva A.U., Beisembaev B.B. // 25.07.1995 (in Russian)

4. E.N. Kuzin, N.E. Kruchinina Evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of complex coagulants in the processes of wastewater treatment in machine-building production // Bulletin of higher educational institutions Series of chemistry and chemical technology. T 62 (10) 2019, - S. 140-146. DOI: 10.6060 / ivkkt.20196210.5939. (in Russian)

5. Pugacheva I.N., Karmanov A.V., Zueva S.B., De Michelis I., Ferella F., Molokanova L.V., Vegliò F. Heavy metal removal by cellulose-based textile waste product. Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Khim. Khim. Tekhnol. [Russ. J. Chem. & Chem. Tech.]. 2020. V. 63. N 2.P. 105-110.

6. Zubkova O.S., Alekseev A.I., Zalilova M.M. Research of combined use of carbon and aluminum compounds for wastewater treatment. Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Khim. Khim. Tekhnol. [Russ. J. Chem. & Chem. Tech.]. 2020. V. 63. N 4. P. 86-91.

7.https: // A.B. Application of the vermicultivation method for the biodegradation of solid waste // Young scientist. 2013. No. 3. S. 168-171. (in Russian)

8. Blagadyreva, A.M. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of thermally modified defecate for the purification of waste water from oil products and explanation of the mechanism of the water purification process // Ecology, energy and resource conservation, environmental protection and human health, waste disposal: abstracts. report International Scientific and Practical Conference, 2009 Kharkov, Vol.2. Pp. 333 -334. (in Russian)

9. Sverguzova, Zh.A. Purification of model solutions and emulsions from milk fat, serum and asparagine with a modified defect // Geosystems: development factors, rational use, management methods: materials of the International Scientific Conference; ed. Doctor of Geographical Sciences, prof. S.Ya. Sergin. Tuapse: Sterkh, 2008.P. 218-219. (in Russian)

10. A.V., Maltseva V.S. Prospects for the use of sugar beet waste as sorbents // Vodoochistka. Water treatment. Water supply. 2012 No. 1 (49). S.16-18. (in Russian)

11. Blagadyreva, A.M. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of thermally modified defecate for the purification of wastewater from oil products and explanation of the mechanism of the water purification process // Ecology, energy and resource conservation, environmental protection and human health, waste disposal: abstracts. report International Scientific and Practical Conference, 2009 Kharkov, Vol.2. Pp. 333 -334. (in Russian)

12. Dorokhova E.N., Prokhorova G.V. Analytical chemistry. Physicochemical methods of analysis. Textbook. H. shk., 1991.P. 255. (in Russian)

13. Kuzmin V.I. Gravimetry. 2011, 163 p. (in Russian)

14. Lutsik V.I. Electrochemical methods in the laboratory practice of physicochemical methods of analysis. Edition 1. 2007 .-- 52 p. (in Russian)

15. E. V. Radion, A. E. Sokolovsky, N. A. Kovalenko, G. N. Supichenko, T. N. Kiiko. Physicochemical methods of analysis. - Minsk: BSTU, 2010 .-- 110 p. (in Russian)

16. RMUsmanov, ABAbdikamalova, IDEshmetov, DSSalikhanova Colloidal-chemical foundations of creating composite materials based on local waste for acid wastewater treatment. // Monograph, -Tashkent: Navruz, 2020 .-- 155 p. (in Russian)

17. Usmonov R.M., KuldashevaSh.A., Salihanova D.S., Eshmetov I.D., Abdurakhimov S.A. Cleaning of waste water for fatty production by waste of sugar production - defecate // Austrian Journal of Technical and Natural Sciences. No. 9-10. 2018.-p. 82-86.

To cite this article: D. A. Azimova, D. S. Salikhanova, I. D. Eshmetov, F. E. Umirov. Use of defecate as an effective meliorant for deoxidation in waste cleaning processes of water-metallurgical combine // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr1. - Pp. 41-46. 

Received: 25.03.2021; Accepted: 01.04.2021; Published: 02.04.2021


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UDK 547.791.4

U. N. Ruziev, U. R. Ernazarov, V. P. Guro, R. D. Allabergenov, M. A. Ibragimova


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Abstract. Background. One of the purposes of tungsten is the production of hard alloys, where tungsten concentrates (TC) of the Ingichke deposit and the products of processing of tungsten-containing man-made wastes are used as raw materials - cakes of the sludge field NPO PRMiTS JSC Almalyk MMC

Purpose: assessment of the technological capabilities and prospects for processing VC from the Ingichke deposit and cakes for leaching VC from the sludge fields of the plant for the production of hard alloys WC-Co, WC-Ni.

Methodology. The concentration of W(VI), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mo(VI), Re(VII) ions was determined photocolorimetrically (KFK-2) and spectrometrically (AAS Perkin-Elmer 3030B, ICP-Aligent 7500 IСP MS). Sample microscopy –via SEM-EDS: EVO-MA (Carl Zeiss, Germany, Oxford Instrum, UK). We used laboratory and industrial hydrometallurgical installations at JSC Almalyk MMC.

Originality. It was found that as a raw material for the production of hard alloys based on tungsten carbide with cobalt and nickel binder, W-containing cakes of sludge fields of JSC Almalyk MMC are acceptable. It is shown that in order to involve another potential resource in processing, the TC of the Ingechke deposit, it is necessary to develop a technology for its purification from impurities.

Findings. The technology of auto-soda leaching of tungsten-containing cakes from VC processing has been successfully developed and implemented, which ensures the production of ammonium paratungstate that meets the requirements for the production of hard alloys.

Key words: tungsten carbide, hard alloys, cakes, sludge field, tungsten anhydride, ammonium paratungstate.


-  autoclave-soda leaching of tungsten raw materials;

-  technology for processing tungsten-containing cakes;

-  the final product of cake processing is ammonium paratungstate.


1. Kieffer Bernhard F. Reclamation of tungsten containing scrap materials, economic and technical aspects // Int. J. Refract and Hard Metals. - 1988. - V.7, N2. - P.63-65.

 2. Ruziev U., Asadov I. Areas of activity of Scientific Production Association on rare metals and hard alloys with JSC “Almalyk Mining Metallurgical Company" as well as the prospects for cooperation in the field of deep processing of rare metals for production of export-oriented products with high added value. The 3rd Binational Workshop between Korea (KIRAM) - Uzbekistan (AMMC) on Rare Metals / Dated 20th Apr, 2019, Chirchik Scientific Production association on rare metals and hard alloys, JSC AMMC, Uzbekistan.-2019. - Pp. 14-27.

3. Zelikman A.N. Metallurgy of refractory rare metals. - M .: Metallurgy, 1986 .-- 439 p. (in Russian)

4. Zelikman A.N., Nikitina A.S. Wolfram. - M .: Metallurgy, 1978. - 272 p. (in Russian)

5. Sitting M. Extraction of metals and inorganic compounds from waste. Reference edition. - M .: Metallurgy, 1985. - 408 p. (in Russian)

6. Nikitina L.S. Production of tungsten from secondary raw materials // Non-ferrous metals. -1989. - No. 9 - P.84. (in Russian)

7. Allabergenov R.D., Rasulova S.N., Ruziev U.N., Guro V.P. Extraction of rhenium from the tailing dump of JSC "Almalyk MMC" // Uzbek. chem. zhurn. - 2018. -No3. - P.22-29. (in Russian)

 8. Guro V.P. Separation of molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium in the chemical and anodic dissolution of alloys based on them. materials of the Republic. n.-tech. conference "Actual problems of creation and use of high technologies for processing mineral resources of Uzbekistan." - Tashkent: Fan, - 2-3 oct. 2007. - P.243-246. (in Russian)

9. Asadov I.S., Guro V.P., Ibragimova M.A., Shtyrlov P.Yu. Extraction of molybdenum, rhenium, copper from cakes of processing of molybdenum concentrates // Uzbek. Chem. J. -2010.-No4. -P. 62-66. (in Russian)

10. Asadov I.S., Ernazarov M. Precipitation of tungsten from molybdenum-containing solutions. Mining Bulletin of Uzbekistan. 2010. No. 1 (40) P.103-105. (in Russian)

11. Ruziev U.N., Rasulova S.N., Guro V.P., Allabergenov R.D. Sludge processing NPOAO "Almalyk MMC" is a profitable environmental project // Proceedings of the VII International Scientific-Practical Conference "Problems of rational use and protection of natural resources of the Southern Aral Sea Region ”, Karakalpak Branch of Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences. - Nukus. Ilim. -2018. Part 2.- P.146-147. (in Russian)

To cite this article: U. N. Ruziev, U. R. Ernazarov, V. P. Guro, R. D. Allabergenov, M. A. Ibragimova. Tungsten raw materials for the hard alloys production  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr1. - Pp. 47-52. 

Received: 25.03.2021; Accepted: 01.04.2021; Published: 02.04.2021


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UDK 547.791.4

F. B. Kirgizov, I. A. Abdugafurov, I. S. Ortikov


1Andijan Institute of Mechanical Engineering, 2National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek. 3Tashkent region Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute. E-mail: E-mail:

Abstract. Background. On the basis of propargyl ester of saturated monocarboxylic acid and para-azidobenzoic acid, 1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized by 1,3-bipolar cycloaddition. Was obtained water-soluble forms of these triazoles - potassium salts. The structure of the synthesized substances was confirmed by modern physical research methods. Initial trials have begun to investigate the pharmacological activity of water-soluble potassium salts.

Purpose. Synthesis of 4- (4- (R-hydroxymethyl) 1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) benzoic acid derivatives in the presence of a Cu2I2 catalyst on a 1,3-bipolar cycloaddition. Carrying out the synthesis of the water-soluble form of the obtained substances - to synthesize potassium salts. Analyze the structure of the synthesized compounds by physical research research methods.

Methodology: 4- (4- (R-hydroxymethyl) 1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) benzoic acids were synthesized by the reaction of 1,3-bipolar cycloaddition of propargyl ester of a monobasic saturated carboxylic acid and para-azidobenzoic acid. The potassium salts of the corresponding substances were obtained. The structure of the synthesized substances was confirmed by the analysis of IR-, 1H NMR and Mass spectrometry data.

Originality. Derivatives of 1,2,3-triazole were obtained on the basis of propargyl ethers of monobasic saturated low-molecular-weight monocarboxylic acids. For the first time, water-soluble forms of 4- (4- (R-hydroxymethyl) -1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) benzoic acid  its potassium salts were synthesized. The factors acting on the course of the reaction were studied.

Findings: 4- (4- (R-hydroxymethyl) -1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) benzoic acids and their potassium salts were synthesized in the presence of KOH. The good water solubility of their potassium salts has been confirmed. The structure was analyzed and confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectrometry.

Keywords: potassium salts of 4- (4- (R-hydroxymethyl) -1Н-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) benzoic acid, 1,3-bipolar cycloaddition reaction, 4- (4- (pentanoyloxymethyl) -1Н -1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) benzoic acid, potassium salt of 4- (4- (acetoxymethyl) -1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) benzoic acid.


- 4- (4- (substituted) 1H-1.2.3-triazol-1-yl) benzoic acids were synthesized;

- based on the synthesized triazoles, their potassium salts were obtained;

- the obtained salts possess good water solubility;

- effect of temperature and nature of the solvent on the reaction yield.


1. Bakr Abdel-Wahab F., Hanan Mohamed A. and Ghada Awad E.A. Synthesis and biological activity of some new 1,2,3-triazole hydrazone derivatives // Eur. Chem. Bull.- 2015.-4 (2) .- 106-109

2. Alexandre Lebeau, Cyril Abrioux, David Benimelis, Zohra Benfodda, Patrick Meffre Synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole Derivatives Using Click Chemistry and their Src Kinase Activities photo physical properties, cytotoxicity and cellular imaging investigations. // Dalton Trans.-2014. -43.-439-450.

3. Ramesh Babu H., Ravinder M., Sirassu Narsimha. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New 1,2,3-Triazole Based 2-Sulfonylbenzoxazoles as Potent Anti-inflammatory and Antibacterial Agents // Indian Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry.-Vol. 29.- Number 04. -2019.-389-395

4. Ademola Ayeleso, Jitcy Joseph, Yonas Belay, Henok Kinfe, Sithandiwe Mazibuko, Oluwafemi Oguntibeju, Emmanuel Mukwevho. Hybrid compounds from thiosemicarbazone and triazole as antidiabetic agents and their antioxidant potentials. // Biomedical Research.-2017.-28 (1) .- 411-420

5. Junbo He, Lingling Feng, Jing Li, Ruijuan Tao, Fang Wang, Xun Liao, Qiushuang Sun, Qingwu Long, Yanliang Ren, Jian Wan, Hongwu He. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 2-methylpyrimidine-4-ylamine derivatives as inhibitors of Escherichia coli pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1. // Bioorg Med Chem. 2012. 20 (5) 1665-70.

6. Popkov S.V., Kovalenko L.V. Development of scientific foundations of synthesis and modification technology 22. No 2434001 // RCTU. 1980, 34 (in Russian)

7. Christophe Pardin, Isabelle Roy, William Lubell D., Jeffrey Keillor W. Reversible and Competitive Cinnamoyl Triazole Inhibitors of Tissue Transglutaminase // Chemical Biology & Drug Design 2008. 72 (3) 189-196.

8. Fernando de Carvalho da Silva, Mariana Filomena do Carmo Cardoso, Patricia Garcia Ferreira, and Vitor F. Ferreira. Biological Properties of 1H-1,2,3- and 2H-1,2,3-Triazoles. // Top Heterocycl Chem.-2014.-124 p.

9. Mina Saeedi, Maryam Mohammadi-Khanaposhtanic, Parvaneh Pourrabi, Nima Razzaghid, Reza Ghadimie, Somaye Imanparast at al. Design and synthesis of novel quinazolinone-1,2,3-triazole hybrids as newanti-diabetic agents: In vitro α-glucosidase inhibition, kinetic, and dockingstudy. // Bioorganic chemistry.-83.-2019.-161-169.

10. Khurshed Bozorov, Jiangyu Zhao, Haji A. Aisa 1,2,3-Triazole-containing hybrids as leads in medicinal chemistry: A recent overview // Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry.-27.-2019.- 3511–3531

11. Ramesh Babu H., Ravinder M., Sirassu Narsimha. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New 1,2,3-Triazole Based 2-Sulfonylbenzoxazoles as Potent Anti-inflammatory and Antibacterial Agents. // Indian Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry.-Vol. 29.- Number 04.-2019.-389-395.

12. Gordon A., Ford R. Chemist's Companion. Physicochemical properties, techniques. –Moscow: Mir, 1976. - 541 p. (in Russian)

13. Tarasevich B.N. IR spectra of the main classes of organic compounds. Reference materials. –Maskva.-2012.-55 c. (in Russian)

14. Tayebeh Hosseinnejad, Fatemeh Ebrahimpour-Malmir and Bahareh Fattahi. Computational investigations of click-derived 1,2,3-triazoles as keystone ligands for complexation with transition metals // RSC Adv.-2018.- 8.-P.12232

15. Willber D. Castro-Godoy, Adrian A. Heredia, Luciana C. Schmidt and Juan E., Arguello A. Straightforward and sustainable synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles via visible-light promoted copper- catalyzed azide – alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) // RSC Adv.-2017.-7.-33967–33973 p

16. Johan R. Johansson, Tamas Beke-Somfai, Anna Said Stalsmeden, and Nina Kann. Ruthenium-Catalyzed Azide Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction: Scope, Mechanism, and Applications // Chem. Rev. -2016.-116.-14726-14768

17. Abdugafurov I.A., Kirgizov F.B., Madikhanov N., Ortikov I.S. Tuyingan bir asosli yuқori carbonic acid propargyl esterlari va para-azidobenzoic acid asoside 1,2,3-triazole khosilalari synthesis // Uzbekiston kime magazines. -4.-2020.-76-85 p. (in Russian)

18. Climent.A., Jorewitz M., Barqawi H., Siefermann.K.R and Wolfgang H. Synthesis and Characterization of new Photoswitchable Azobenzene –conteiningpoly (ε-caprolaktones) // The Royal Society of Chemistry.-2016.

To cite this article: F. B. Kirgizov, I. A. Abdugafurov, I. S. Ortikov. Synthesis of 4- (4- (R-oxymethyl) -1-Н-1,2,3-triazol -1-yl) benzoic acids and their potassium salts // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr1. - Pp. 53-61. 

Received: 19.11.2020; Accepted: 13.03.2021; Published: 02.04.2021


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UDK 547.944/945+548.737

1J. Jalolov, 2B. Tashkhodjayev, 2S. F. Aripova


1Ferghana State University. 2Institute of Chemistry of Plant Substances named after V.I. acad. S.Yu. Yunusov AS RUz; e-mail:

Аbsract. Background. The alkaloid bufotenin was first isolated from the total alkaloids of the aerial part of the plant Arundo donax (Poaceae), which grows in Uzbekistan. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) of a single crystal of bufotenine iodomethylate obtained by the reaction of an alkaloid with methyl iodide in methanol was performed.

Purpose. The aim of this work is to carry out X-ray structural analysis of a single crystal to establish the structure of the isolated alkaloid.

Metodology. Determination of the conditions for obtaining a single crystal of iodomethylate alkaloid, analysis of the packing of the crystal structure. The unit cell parameters and reflection intensities were determined on a STOE Stadi-4 four-circle diffractometer. The structure of the alkaloid was solved by a direct method using the SHELXS-97 software package.

Originality.  For the first time, an alkaloid was isolated from the aerial part of the plant Arundo donax of the flora of Uzbekistan, the structure of iodomethylate of which was established by X-ray diffraction. X-ray structural analysis materials of a single crystal of methylene iodine bufotenine in the form of a CIF file have been deposited at the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Center (CCDC 253048).

Findings. According to X-ray diffraction data, the molecular and crystal structure of a single crystal of methylene iodine alkaloid obtained from a plant - reed reed has been established for the first time.

Key words: plant, Arundo donax, Poaceae, single crystal, alkaloid, bufotenin, iodomethylate, X-ray diffraction analysis.


- the synthesis of a single crystal of methylene iodine of the alkaloid bufotenine was carried out;

- the structure of a single crystal of methylene iodine of the alkaloid bufotenine has been proved.


1. Flora of Uzbekistan, -Tashkent: Ed. Academy of Sciences of the UzSSR, 1941.-T.1.-P. 348. (in Russian)

2. Shamsuvalieva A.M., Nigmatullaev A.M., Sultanov S.A., Kazantsev V.V., Okhunov I.I., Sagdullaev B.T. Anatomical structure of leaves and stems of Arundo donax // Uzbek biologist. Journal. -2008. - No. 4. - P. 26-29. (in Russian)

3. Sultanov S.N., Sagdullaev B.T., Nigmatullaev A.M., Mukumov I.U. Prospects for using Arundo donax in Uzbekistan // Uzbek biologist. Journal. -2007. -No. 3. -P. 86-89. (in Russian)

4. Aripova S.F., I.Zh. Zhalolov, V.U. Khuzhaev Monograph: "Alkaloids of the giant cereal Arundo donax L. Chemistry, structure of properties". –Tashkent, 2017. –P. 252. (in Russian)

5. Shakirov R., Vinogradova V.I., Aripova S.F., Sultankhodzhaev M.N., Bessonova I.A., Akhmedzhanova V.I., Tulaganov T.S., Salimov B.T. "Natural Compounds: Plant, Sources, Structure and Properties", Springer, New York, 2013, 8,

6. Mirzaev Yu.R., Sanoev Z.I., Sadikov O.Z., Aripova S.F., Sagdullaev Sh.Sh., Nigmatullaev B.A., Karimov U.T., Abdullaev N.D., Botirov R.A. // "A remedy with aphrodisiac activity." Patent No. IAP 05297. Registered in the state. the register of inventions of the Republic of Uzbekistan in Tashkent on October 26, 2016 (in Russian)

7. F.N. Allen, O. Kennard, D.G. Watson. J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. II, 1987, S1-S19

8. Falkenberg G., Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B: Struct. Crystallogr. Crystal. Chem. (1972), 28, 3219.

9. Moreira L. A., Murta M. M., Gatto C. C., Fagg C. W., dos Santos M. L., Nat. Prod. Commun. (2015), 10, 581.

10. Zhalolov I.Zh., Khuzhaev V.U., Levkovich M.G., Tashkhodzhaev B., Abdullaev N.D., Aripova S.F // Chemistry of Natural Resources-1998.-No6.-P .790-795. (in Russian)

11. Zhalolov I.Zh., Tashkhodzhaev B., Khuzhaev V.U., Aripova S.F. // Chemistry of Natural Resources-2002.-No1.-P .67-69. (in Russian)

12. Khuzhaev V.U., Zhalolov I.Zh., Turgunov K.K., Tashkhodzhaev B., Levkovich M.G., Aripova S.F. // Chemistry of natural compounds-2004.-No3.-P.220-224. (in Russian)

13. Khuzhaev V.U., Zhalolov I.Zh., Turgunov K.K., Tashkhodzhaev B., Levkovich M.G., Aripova S.F., Shashkov A.S. .-No3.-P.227-229. (in Russian)

14. Sheldrick G. M. Acta Crystallogr.-2008.-A64.-112.

15. Sheldrick G.M., Acta Crystallogr.-2015.-A71.- 3.

To cite this article: J. Jalolov, B. Tashkhodjayev, S. F. Aripova. Alkaloids of Arundo donax. crystal and molecular structure of alkaloid bufotenine iodmethylate  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr1. - Pp. 61-65. 

Received: 05.02.2020; Accepted: 26.02.2021; Published: 02.04.2021


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UDK 547.944/945

R. K. Karimov, G. V. Zukhurova, S. S. Saidov, А. SH. Abdurazakov


Institute of Chemistry of Plant Substances named after V.I. acad. S.Yu. Yunusov AS RUz, E-mail:   

Abstract. Background. Known methods of purification of technical magnesium sulfate heptahydrate are characterized by high consumption of solvents and high labor intensity.

Purpose. Development of an economically low-cost technology for bringing magnesium sulfate heptahydrate to pharmacopoeial purity based on local raw materials.

Methodology. To control the obtained samples, titrimetric and spectral methods of analysis were used.

Originality. The optimization of the process of obtaining magnesium sulfate heptahydrate on the basis of a mathematical model of the processes has been carried out.

Findings. A method for the analysis of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate has been developed to control the target product. The influence of the main factors influencing the process of obtaining pharmacopoeial magnesium sulfate heptahydrate has been studied, and the process has been optimized. A comparative analysis of the obtained samples was carried out at the AIL LLC "Radiks".

Key words: analysis, optimization, activated carbon, sorbent, filtration, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, factors, equation.


- factors affect on the yield of magnesium sulfate heptahydratt was revealed;

- a technological scheme for obtaining a product has been developed.


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To cite this article: R. K. Karimov, G. V. Zukhurova, S. S. Saidov, А. SH. Abdurazakov. Optimization of the process of purification of technical magnesium sulfate heptahydrate  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr1. - Pp. 65-70. 

Received: 24.05.2020; Accepted: 01.04.2021; Published: 02.04.2021


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UDK 631.417.1

O. Myachina, R. Kim, L. Mamasalieva


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Abstract. An extensive analysis of modern literary sources describing various methods of sequestration (capture) CO2 from the atmosphere, fixation and storage of carbon is given. It is shown that on a global scale, the most important carbon stocks are the soil with plants, which capable the short- and long-term stored the carbon in humus form as soil organic matter. In addition to stock (accumulative) function, restored productive soils will provide quantity and high-quality yields, these soils will be resistant to erosion, damaging climatic and anthropogenic factors. It is expected that restored (earlier degraded) soils for 25 years will be able to confirm sequestration and storage of 20 PG (Petagram 1015 g) of carbon, i.e. more than 10 percent of all anthropogenic emissions. The estimated CO2 fixation volume both in local and global scale will provide environmental, economic, energy and resource-saving effects, and by improving the life quality - a high social effect.

Keywords: sequestration, carbon, greenhouse gases, degraded soils, agro technologies, humus.


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To cite this article: O. Myachina, R. Kim, L. Mamasalieva. Present methods of carbon sequestration in soils and their effectiveness (Review) // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr1. - Pp. 70-80. 

Received: 26.03.2020; Accepted: 02.04.2021; Published: 02.04.2021


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