Uzbek Chemical Journal




UDK 669.66-971.2

Sh.T. Khojiev, B.T. Berdiyarov, Sh. A. Mukhametdjaniva, A. I. Nematillaev


Tashkent State Technical University

Abstract. Background. One of the ways to intensify copper production is to involve industrial wastes, including copper slag, in the processing. To extract copper from it, reducing agents are introduced into the heated liquid slag of the furnace, as a result, copper passes into the matte phase.

Purpose. It is reasonable, from a thermodynamic point of view, to propose for the role of a reducing agent in liquid copper furnace slag carbon components that are part of used car tires with slag components,

Methodology. The probability of carbothermal reactions was estimated by determining the change in thermodynamic functions, taking into account the temperature dependence of the isobaric-isothermal potential. The kinetic equations were derived from the dependence of the equilibrium constants of the reactions on the Gibbs energy. in Microsoft Excel. built Ellingham diagrams to determine the optimal process temperatures.

Originality. The mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics of the processes of interaction of liquid copper slag with carbon in the composition of car tire waste were studied, and a general Ellingham diagram of the process was constructed.

Findings. It has been established that in slag the reactions of reduction of oxides (CuO, Cu2O, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, FeO) with carbon are endothermic. The decrease in temperature in the system of liquid slag with the carbon component of tires is justified. The limiting stage of the process is the wustite reduction reaction. It goes in the kinetic mode, other reactions - in the diffusion mode. The optimum process temperature depends on the wustite reduction reaction: 1150°C is the optimum process temperature in general.

Key words: reduction, thermodynamics, carbothermal reaction, Ellingham diagram, oxide, Gibbs energy, converter slag, carbon.


- thermodynamic functions of reactions in converter slags;

- carbon component in the composition of car tires, as a reducing agent;

- carbothermic reactions in the Fe-Cu-O-C system;

- kinetics of equilibrium changes in the metal-oxygen metal oxide system.


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2.   Traistă E. et al. Research on the Recovery of Copper from Metallurgical Slag //Mining Revue. – 2021.-Vol. 27. – №. 3. P. 40-44.

3.   Sivakumar P. P. et al. Feasibility Study on the Use of Modified Copper Slag as a Sustainable Fine Aggregate in Mortar //Recent Progress in Materials. – 2021. – Vol. 3. – №. 2. P. 1-1.

4.   Yong Y., Hua W., Jianhang H. Co-treatment of electroplating sludge, copper slag, and spent cathode carbon for recovering and solidifying heavy metals //Journal of Hazardous Materials. – 2021.-Vol. 417.-P. 126020.

5.   Dyussebekova M. A. et al. The main reasons for increased copper losses with slags from vanyukov furnace //Metalurgija. – 2021.-Vol. 60. – №. 3-4.-P. 309-312.

6.   Iloeje C. O., Tesfaye F., Anderson A. E. Thermodynamic optimization of critical metals processing and recovery: part I //JOM. – 2021.-Vol. 73. – №. 2.-P. 665-667.

7.   Wang H., et al. Investigation of Solid-State Carbothermal Reduction of Fayalite with and Without Added Metallic Iron //JOM. – 2021.-Vol. 73. – №. 2.-P. 703-711.

8.   Labaj J., et al. The use of waste, fine-grained carbonaceous material in the process of copper slag reduction //Journal of Cleaner Production. – 2021. – Vol. 288.-P. 125640.

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10. Zhou S., et al. Effect of Iron Phase Evolution on Copper Separation from Slag Via Coal-Based Reduction //Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B. – 2018.-Vol. 49. – №. 6. P. 3086-3096. 

11. Gorai B., et al. Characteristics and utilisation of copper slag—a review //Resources, Conservation and Recycling. – 2003.-Vol. 39. – №. 4.-P. 299-313.

12. Yusupkhodjaev A.A., Khojiev Sh.T., Valiev X.R., Saidova M.S., Omonkhonov O.X. Application of Physical and Chemical Methods for Processing Slags of Copper Production // International Journal of Advanced Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. -Vol. 6, Issue 1.-2019.- P. 7957 – 7963.

13. Khojiev Sh.T. Pyrometallurgical Processing of Copper Slags into the Metallurgical Ladle //International Journal of Advanced Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. -Vol. 6, Issue 2.-2019.-P. 8094 – 8099.

14. Yusupkhodjayev A.A., Khojiyev Sh.T. Methods of decreasing of Copper loss with Slag in Smelting Processes// International Academy Journal Web of Scholar. Kiev, March 2017, -№ 2(11).-Vol. 1, P. 5 – 8.

15. Matkarimov S.T., Yusupkhodjaev A.A., Khojiev Sh.T., Berdiyarov B.T., Matkarimov Z.T. Technology for the Complex Recycling Slags of Copper Production // Journal of Critical Reviews.-Vol.7, Iss.5.- 2020.-P.214 – 220.

16. Tretyakov Yu.D. solid state reactions. – M.: Chemistry, 1978.-360 p. (in Russian)

17. Khojiev Sh.T., Matkarimov S.T., Narkulova E.T., Matkarimov Z.T., Yuldasheva N.S. The Technology for the Reduction of Metal Oxides Using Waste Polyethylene Materials // Conference proceedings of “Metal 2020 29th International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials”, May 20 – 22, 2020.-Brno, Czech Republic, EU.-P. 971-978.

18. Yusupkhodzhaev A.A.,  Khozhiev Sh.T.,   Akramov U.A.  Use of non-traditional reducing agents to expand the resource base of OJSC Uzmetkombinat // Chernye Metally.-2021. -Vol.4.- Issue 4.-P. 4 – 8.   

19. Khojiev Sh., Berdiyarov B., Mirsaotov S. Reduction of Copper and Iron Oxide Mixture with Local Reducing Gases//Acta of Turin Polytechnic University.-Tashkent.-2020.- Vol.10.- Iss.4.-P. 7-17.

To cite this article: Sh.T. Khojiev, B.T. Berdiyarov, Sh. A. Mukhametdjaniva, A. I. Nematillaev. Some thermodynamic aspects of carbothermal reactions in the Fe-Cu-O-C system  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr6. - Pp.3-13. 

Received: 24.12.2021; Accepted: 14.01.2022; Published: 14.01.2022


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UDK 543.872

S. N. Rasulova, V. P. Guro, U. N. Ruziev, H. F. Adinaev, E.T. Safarov


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Abstract. Background. Copper disulfide is present in the molybdenite concentrate of Almalyk MMC. The kinetics of molybdenite oxidation in nitric acid solutions has been studied previously. It was of interest to compare the behavior of molybdenite and copper sulfide under the same conditions.

Purpose: to study the kinetics of oxidative leaching of honey sulfide with nitric acid by the rotating disk method.

Methodology. Samples of synthetic copper sulfide, a solution of nitric acid in the range of root concentrations of 5-55% were used, the concentration in solutions of oxidative leaching of Cu (II) ions was controlled by photocolorimetry and spectrometry (AAS Perkin-Elmer 3030B, ICP-Agilent 7500 ICP MS). Kinetic measurements were performed with compact disc-shaped opper disulfide samples.

Originality. The parameters of the kinetic equation of the leaching process were obtained: the order of the reaction in terms of the oxidant concentration and the activation energy of the diffusion process of copper (II) ions into the liquid phase of the solution.

Findings. The kinetics of oxidation of copper sulfide in solutions of nitric acid at a temperature of 24-70° C, atmospheric pressure has been studied.

Key words: copper disulfide, minerals, Mo concentrate, oxidation, leaching, nitric acid, hydrometallurgy.


- kinetics of oxidation of CuS was studied by the method of a rotating disk;

-  parameters of the kinetic equation of CuS leaching were calculated;

-  reagent-oxidizing agent of copper sulfide - nitric acid, was applied.


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5. Potashnikov Yu.M., Lutsik V.I., Chursanov Yu.V. Study of the interaction of molybdenite with nitric acid. Izvestiya vuzov. Non-ferrous metallurgy.–1984.–No. 1.–C. 57-61. (in Russian)

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12. Guillermo Tiburcio-Munive, María M. Salazar-Campoy, Jesús L. Valenzuela-García, Ofelia Hernández-Negrete, Víctor Vázquez-Vázquez, Dissolution of Silver and Gold with Sodium Hypochlorite and Hydrochloric Acid in Refractory Minerals (Mangano-Argentiferous) . // Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (2020) 37: pp. 1213–1220,

13. Ravinder K. Garlapalli, Eung Ha Cho, and Ray Y.K. Yang, Leaching of Chalcopyrite with Sodium Hypochlorite//Metallurgical And Materials Transactions B.- Volume 41B.-2010.-Pr. 308-317, DOI: 10.1007/s11663-009-9328-x.

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15. Pleskov V., Filinovsky V. Yu. Rotating disk electrode. -M.: Nauka, 1972.– 225 p. (in Russian)

16. Rasulova S.N., Guro V.P. Kinetics of reactant oxidation of molybdenum sulfide in sulfuric acid electrolyte. Part 2 // Uzbek. chem. magazine - 2020. - №4. - P.3-9. (in Russian)

17. Dauletbakov T.S., Smagulov M.O., Amirkhan A.A. Extraction of gold from cakes from the leaching of gold-arsenic concentrate // Bulletin of the Kazakh National Technical University. K. I. Satpaeva. ISSN: 1680-9211.-2011. -Almaty.- S. 209-212. (in Russian)

18. Kakovsky, I.A. Thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrometallurgical processes / I.A. Kakovsky, S.S. Naboychenko. -Almaty (RK): Science, 1986.-272 p. (in Russian)

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21. Yurkevich, Yu.L. Decomposition of molybdenite with nitric acid / Yu.L. Yurkevich, K.Ya. Shapiro// Metallurgy of tungsten, molybdenum and niobium.- M.: Nauka, 1967.- P. 53-56. (in Russian)

To cite this article: S. N. Rasulova, V. P. Guro, U. N. Ruziev, H. F. Adinaev, E.T. Safarov. Kinetics of copper sulphide oxidation with nitric acid  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr6. - Pp.13-20

Received: 30.12.2021; Accepted: 14.01.2022; Published: 14.01.2022


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UDK 547.463.2-036.763

S. O. Xadjayeva, А. S. Rafikov, A.T. Ibragimov, S. Kh. Karimov



Tashkent Institute of Textile and Light Industry, e-mail:

Abstract. Background: Graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers with synthetic rubber is a method for producing thermoplastic elastomers. Grafting a thermoplastic polymer with side functional groups to polychloroprene improves the adhesive properties of the layer.

Purpose. Synthesis, determination of kinetic parameters and parameters of acrylic acid grafting to polychloroprene rubber.

Methodology: homogeneous synthesis, gravimetry, extraction.

Originality. The order of the reaction according to the concentration of the monomer and initiator, the activation energy, the degree and efficiency of the grafting process for the synthesis of a graft copolymer of polychloroprene rubber with acrylic acid were established.

Findings. Synthesized graft copolymers of polychloroprene with acrylic acid in a solution of benzene-dimethylformamide in the presence of potassium persulfate as an initiator. The order of the reaction in terms of the numberer and initiator, and the activation energy of the process were determined. The degree of grafting increases from 2% to 140% with increasing process time, monomer and initiator concentrations.

Key words: polychloroprene rubber, acrylic acid, reaction order, activation energy, degree and efficiency of grafting.


- order of reaction according to the concentration of acrylic acid and potassium persulfate;

- factivation energy of graft copolymerization;

- molecular weight values of grafted chains as a result of grafting.


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14. F. Aneeq, M. Shahid, M. Saleem, M. Awais, M.Sh. Butt, M.A. Umer.Enhancement in bonding strength and ageing resistance of polychloroprene solvent-base adhesives through graft copolymerization// Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology.-2020.-P. 1752-1763.

15. N. Radkhakrishnan, P.R. Periyakaruppan, K.S.V. Srinivasan.Modification of Polychloroprene by Graft Copolymerization and its Application as an Adhesive // Adhesion Journal.-1997.-V. 61 (1-4). -P. 27-36.

16. Rafikov A.S., Ibragimov A.T., Abdusamatova D.O., Ibodullaev B.Sh. Kinetic parameters of copolymerization of isopyrene, butadiene-styrene and butadiene-nitrile rubbers with butyl methacrylate // Uzbek chemical journal.-2019.-No2.-P.4-8. (in Russian)

17. Rafikov A.S., Karimov S.Kh., Abdusamatova D.O. Synthesis of thermoplastic elastomer during copolymerization of synthetic rubber with butyl methacrylate // Universum: Chemistry and biology: electron. scientific journal-2018.-№No5(47). (in Russian)

18. M.M. Nasef, H. Saidi, K.Z.M.Dahlan. Kinetic investigations of graft copolymerization of sodium styrene sulfonate onto electron beam irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride) films // Radiation Physics and Chemistry.-2011.-V. 80 (1).- P. 66-75.

19. R. Rohani, M.M. Nasef, H. Saidi, K.Z.M. Dahlan. Effect of reaction conditions on electron induced graft copolymerization of styrene onto poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) films: Kinetics study // Chemical Engineering Journal.-2007.-V. 132 (1-3).-P. 27-35.

20. S. Jaimuand, T. Vatanatham, S. Limtrakul, P. Prapanainar. Kinetic studies of styrene-grafted natural rubber emulsion copolymerization using transmission electron microscope and thermal gravimetric analysis // Polymer.-2015.-V. 67 (12).-P. 249-257.

21. K. Songsing, T. Vatanatham, N. Hansupalak. Kinetics and mechanism of grafting styrene onto nat     ural rubber in emulsion polymerization using cumenehydroperoxide–tetraethylenepentamine as redox initiator // European Polymer Journal.-2013.-V. 49 (5).-P. 1007-1016.

To cite this article: S. O. Xadjayeva, А. S. Rafikov, A.T. Ibragimov, S. Kh. Karimov. Kinetics and parameters of acrylic acid grafting to polychloroprene  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr6. - Pp.20-26

Received: 30.12.2021; Accepted: 14.01.2022; Published: 14.01.2022


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UDK 541.183.6:661.185.1

R. R. Makhkamov, A. E. Kurbanbaeva, F. R. Saidkulov, M. L. Nurmanova


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, e-mail:

Abstract. Background. The study of surface activity, micelle formation, phase behavior and the identification of the nature of the structure of aggregates in solutions of surfactants with a double lipophilic chain is urgent. The study of the micelle-forming ability and phase behavior of surfactants is of practical importance, because their use in many industries is associated with the properties of micellar solutions.

Purpose. Investigation of the surface activity and micelle-forming ability of the sodium salt of hexyl ester of decilensuccinic acid (D-12) and the phase behavior of the binary system AD-12 / water, the structure of aggregates in this system.

Methodology. The critical micelle concentration was determined using the data on the surface tension of surfactant solutions. The phase state of the binary system was determined by visual observations and using a polarizing microscope. The type of liquid crystal was determined based on the microscopic texture.

Originality. Due to the presence of hydrocarbon chains of the surfactant D-12, the lamellar liquid-crystalline phase prevails in a binary system with water on the phase diagram in a wide range. It was found that it coexists with water in the form of vesicles in the two-phase region of the phase diagram.

Findings. A phase diagram of the D-12 / water binary system was obtained depending on the concentration of the components and the temperature of the system. At a surfactant concentration above the critical one, D-12 forms a normal micellar solution. At higher concentrations, D-12 molecules form lamellar liquid crystals. It was found that due to the double hydrocarbon chain of the D-12 molecule, the lamellar liquid crystal phase exists in a wide range of the phase diagram. It has been shown that, upon addition of water, the cross-sectional area of D-12 molecules in lamellar liquid crystals changes insignificantly, which is associated with the invariability of the distance between the lipophilic layers of liquid crystals.

Key words: surfactants, decylene succinates, micelle-forming ability, phase behavior, liquid crystals, vesicle formation.


- on the phase diagram, lamellar liquid crystals coexist in the form of vesicles.

- the addition of water does not change the cross-sectional area of D-12 in lamellar liquid crystals


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3.   New Products and Applications in Surfactant Technology, edited by David R. Karsa.-1998.- 245 p.

4.   Industrial Applications of Microemulsions (Surfactant Science) 1st Edition, by Conxita Solans, Hironobu Kunieda.-1997.-404 p.

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To cite this article: R. R. Makhkamov, A. E. Kurbanbaeva, F. R. Saidkulov, M. L. Nurmanova. Micelle forming ability and phase behavior of sodium decylen hexylsuccinate // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr6. - Pp.27-33. 

Received: 04.10.2021; Accepted: 30.11.2021; Published: 14.01.2022


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UDK 631.842.4

L. G. Aymurzaeva, D. J. Jumaeva


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Abstract. Background. The study of adsorbents used in the treatment of industrial wastewater is topical. Decisions in this area can be made by determining the composition, mineralogy, morphology of the feedstock to meet adsorbent requirements.

Purpose. Study of the physicochemical properties of reagent-adsorbents based on Angren variegated kaolin clays for wastewater treatment of a textile enterprise.

Methodology. IR spectroscopy, X-ray phase analysis and other methods were used.

Originality. The interaction of variegated Angren kaolin and natural mirabilite at a temperature of 600±50°C was determined as well as their phase changes.

Findings. It was revealed that oxygen-containing functional groups are located on the surface of adsorbents. These surface formations determine the features of the sorption and ion-exchange behavior of adsorbents.

Keywords: kaolin, mirabilite, IR spectrum, thermal activation, X-ray diffraction analysis.


- adsorbent - coagulant obtained from kaolin and mirabilite;

- thermally activated adsorbent-coagulant.


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To cite this article: L. G. Aymurzaeva, D. J. Jumaeva. Physico-chemical properties of the adsorbent obtained on the basis of Angren multicolored kaolin clays // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr6. - Pp.33-38. 

Received: 30.12.2021; Accepted: 14.01.2022; Published: 14.01.2022


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UDK 631.412

A. Kh. Rakhmonov, М. М.Tashkuziev, B. I. Niyazaliev


1Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 2Scientific Research Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 3Scientific Research Institute of Breeding, Seed Production and Agricultural Technology of Cotton Cultivation

Abstract. Background.  The use of prolonged mineral fertilizers for plants is relevant. A decrease in the rate of release of nutrients from fertilizer granules and their uniform entry into the soil solution is achieved by introducing bentonites, glauconites, phosphorites and other materials into the composition of fertilizers, which makes it possible to increase their efficiency in irrigated agriculture.

Purpose: comparison of the physical parameters of a typical serozem when applying traditional and prolonged bentonite-containing fertilizers.

Methodology: The physical properties of the soil were studied: moisture capacity, mechanical composition, evaporation (according to M. Gautheyrou (2006). Statistical and correlation analysis was carried out using "STATISTICA 10.0" and "Excel" 2016 ("Data Analysis" package).

Originality. To impart prolonged properties to the melt of ammonium nitrate and ammophos, bentonite (15-20%) by weight of fertilizers was introduced as a modifier. For the first time, a positive effect of prolonged bentonite-containing fertilizers on the physical characteristics of the soil has been established.

Findings: The use of bentonite-containing fertilizers contributed to an increase in the proportion of medium (3-1 mm) and fine (0.25 and 0.1 mm) fractions when ammonium nitrate and ammophos were applied for 3 years. The field moisture capacity of the soil has been increased by 0.65 and 1.29%. The rate of water evaporation from soil fertilized with AM and BAM is greater, and with AS and BAS less than from ordinary soil.

Key words: prolonged fertilizers, bentonite, mechanical composition, total field capacity, evaporation.


- bentonite is effective for modifying fertilizers

- total field capacity varies due to the properties of bentonite;

- in the presence of bentonite, soil porosity and moisture evaporation changed.


1. Tashkuziev M.M., Karimberdieva A.A., Berdiev T.T., Ochilov S.K. Agrotechnology for increasing the fertility of soils in the desert zone of the Aral Sea region during the cultivation of cotton // Agroecological problems of soil science and agriculture. Collection of reports of the international scientific-practical conference of the Kursk branch of the International Public Organization “Society of Soil Scientists named after V.V. Dokuchaev". - Kursk: Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution "Kursky FANC", 2019. - P. 356-358. (in Russian)

2. Tashkuziev M.M., Ochilov S.K., Berdiev T.T., Sherbekov A.A. Agrotechnologies aimed at increasing soil fertility and crop yields. //International Scientific and Practical Conference "Agrarian Science for Agriculture". Book 2.-Barnaul. -2013. -FROM. 235-237. (in Russian)

3. Kozlov A.V., Afonina Yu.I., Vorontsova A.A., Akaf’eva D.V., Mironova Yu.I., Tarasov I.A., Dedyk V.E., Koshelev M.S., Sokolov I.S., Kondrashin B.V. Influence of natural silicon-containing materials on the productivity of leguminous crop rotation in conditions of soddy-podzolic soils of the Non-Chernozem region // Successes of modern natural science. - 2018. - No. 1. - P. 23-28 (in Russian).

4.   Lo, I.M.; Luk, A.F.; Yang, X. (2004) Migration of heavy metals in saturated sand and bentonite/soil admixture. // J. Environ. Eng.-2004.-130, 906–909.

5.   Satje A., Nelson P. (2009) Bentonite treatments can improve the nutrient and water holding capacity of sugarcane soils in the wet tropics. //Proc. Aust. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol.-31, 166.-2009.- Рp.135-138.

6.   Molla A, Ioannou Z, Dimirkou A, Mollas S (2014) Reduction of Nitrate Nitrogen from Alkaline Soils Cultivated with Maize Crop Using Zeolite-Bentonite Soil Amendments. //Int J Waste Resources 4: 155. doi: 10.4172/2252-5211.1000155

7.   J. Czaban, G. Siebielec, E. Czyż, J. Niedźwiecki (2013) Effects of Bentonite Addition on Sandy Soil Chemistry in a Long-Term Plot Experiment (I); Effect on Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen.// Pol. J. Environ. Stud.-2013.-Vol. 22.-No. 6.-Рp. 1661-1667.

8.   Kögel-Knabner I., Guggenberger G., Kleber M., Kandeler E., Kalbitz K., Sched S., Eusterhues K., Leinweber P. (2008) Organo-mineral associations in temperate soils: Integrating biology, mineralogy, and organic chemistry. // J. Plant. Nutr. Soil Sci.-2008.-171, 61.

9.   Churchman G.J., Noble A.D., Chittleborough D.J. (2012) Addition of clay and clay minerals to enhance the sequestration of carbon in soils.//Australian Regolith and Clays Conference.-Mildura, Australia.-Рp. 117-120

10. Indraratne S.P. (2006) Occurrence of organo-mineral complexes in relation to clay mineralogy of some Sri Lanca soils. //J. Natn. Sci. Foundation Sri Lanca 34, 29.-2006.

11. Wang L.L, Sun X.Y., Li S.Y., Zhang T., Zhang W., Zhai P. (2014) Application of organic amendments to a coastal saline soil in north China: Effects on soil physical and chemical properties and tree growth.// PLoS ONE 2014, 9, 89185

12. Junzhen Mi, Edward G. Gregorich, Shengtao Xu, Neil B. McLaughlin, Jinghui Liu (2020) Effect of bentonite as a soil amendment on field water-holding capacity, and millet photosynthesis and grain quality. //Scientific Reports.-V. 10.-18282

13. Di He Enli Wang (2019) On the relation between soil water holding capacity and dryland crop productivity.// Geoderma.-V. 353.-2019.-Pр. 11-24.

14. Marc Pansu Jacques Gautheyrou (2006) Handbook of Soil Analysis Mineralogical, Organic and Inorganic Methods. Springer. -996 р.

15. V. Poirier, C. Roumet, D.A. Angers, A.D. Munson (2018) Species and root traits impact macroaggregation in the rhizospheric soil of a Mediterranean common garden experiment//Plant Soil.-2018.-424.-Рр. 289–302.

To cite this article: A. Kh. Rakhmonov, М. М.Tashkuziev, B. I. Niyazaliev. Physical properties of typical serozem under influence of bentonite modified fertilizers  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr6. - Pp.38-44. 

Received: 24.12.2021; Accepted: 14.01.2022; Published: 14.01.2022


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UDK 544.344.016

N. N. Abrekova, S. D. Makhmudov, F. N. Atamuratov, B. T. Sagdullaev


Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, st. M. Ulugbek 83, Tashkent 100125, e-mail:

Abstract. Background. Dialdehyde polysaccharides are used for chemical modification of low molecular weight biologically active substances containing primary amino groups in their structure. As a result of the condensation reaction of amines with aldehyde groups of oxidized polysaccharides, Schiff bases are formed, in which the active substance is bound to a polymer matrix. It is important to establish the synthesis conditions, the structure of the products and the amount of the compound per one elementary unit of the dialdehyde polysaccharide.

Purpose. Establishing the distinctive features of the chemical interaction of sulfamethoxazole with dialdehyde dextran and pectin.

Methodology. The structure and composition of sulfamethoxazole derivatives were studied by UV- and elemental analysis for nitrogen, as well as by hydrolytic cleavage under acidic conditions.

Originality. The features of the chemical interaction of a nucleophilic compound with dialdehyde polysaccharides, which differ in the structure of the links of the main macromolecular chain, are disclosed.

Findings. A comparative reaction of nucleophilic substitution of sulfamethoxazole with aldehyde groups of oxidized dextran and pectin was carried out. It has been substantiated that sulfamethoxazole, in contrast to oxidized dextran, is able to simultaneously interact with carboxyl and aldehyde groups in the structure of dialdehyde pectin.

Key words: dialdehyde polysaccharide, dextran, pectin, sulfamethoxazole, azomethine bond, polymer complex, hydrolysis.


- modification of sulfamethoxazole with reactive derivatives of dextran and pectin.

- features of the chemical interaction of sulfamethoxazole with dialdehydes of dextran and pectin


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2. Akhmedov O.R., Shomurotov Sh.A., Turaev A.S. Features of the synthesis and antimicrobial properties of guanidine-containing carboxymethylcellulose derivatives//Chemistry of plant raw materials.-2021.-No3. -p.73-82. (in Russian)

3.   Hoglund E. Production of dialdehyde cellulose and periodate regeneration: towards feasible oxidation processes//Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.-2015. -P.70.

4. Syutkin V.N., Nikolaev A.G., Sazhin S.A., Popov V.M., Zamoryansky A.A. Nitrogen-containing derivatives of dialdehyde cellulose. 2. Synthesis of dialdehyde cellulose derivatives with nitrogenous heterocycles // Chemistry of vegetable raw materials.-2000.- No. 1. -P. 5-25. (in Russian)

5. Sarymsakov A.A., Nadzhimutdinov Sh., Tashpulatov Yu.T. Chemical transformations in the chains of cellulose dialdehydes and its ethers // Chemistry of natural compounds.-1998.-№2. -p.212-217. (in Russian)

6. Beknazarova N.S., Makhmudov S.D., Akhmedov O.R., Abrekova N.N., Sagdullaev B.T. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of sulfamethoxazole-pectin // Eurasian Union of Scientists. Series of chemical sciences.-2019.-V.10 (67). -p.75-79. (in Russian)

7. Tunik T.V., Nemchenko U.M., Ganenko T.V., Yurinova G.V., Dzhioev Yu.P., Sukhov B.G., Zlobin V.I., Trofimov B.A. Synthesis and spectral characterization of new biodegradable arabinogalactan derivatives for diagnostics and therapy // Izvestiya RAN. Physical series.-2019.-T.83(3). -P. 408-414. (in Russian)

8.   Muchlisyam, Pardede Tr., Satiawan R. Determination of simultaneous sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim by ultraviolet spectrophotometry with mean centering of ratio spectra // Asian Journal Pharmaceutical Clinical Research.-2018.-V.11 (1). -P.61-69.

9. Borisenko M.S. Water-soluble reactive copolymers of N-vinylpyrrolidone and copolymers of acrylic acid with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate as carriers of anti-tuberculosis drugs: Cand. … cand. chem. Sciences. St. Petersburg, 2019.-153 p. (in Russian)

10. Solovskii M.V., Nikolskaya N.V., Zaikina N.A. Synthesis and properties of polymeric Schiff bases of the antibiotic spiramycin // Chemical Pharmaceutical Journal. -2002.-T.36.-No2. -p.9-13. (in Russian)

To cite this article: N. N. Abrekova, S. D. Makhmudov, F. N. Atamuratov, B. T. Sagdullaev. Comparative studies of the chemical interaction of sulfamethoxazole with dextran and pectin dialdehydes // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr6. - Pp.45-51. 

Received: 30.12.2021; Accepted: 14.01.2022; Published: 14.01.2022


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UDK 547.791.6; 547.791.7

S. G. Usmanova, I. A. Abdugafurov, I. S. Ortikov, A. J. Kurbanova


1National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Universitetskaya street, 4, 2Institute of Chemistry of Plant Substances of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Tashkent city, Mirzo Ulugbek street, 77, 3Chirchik State Pedagogical Institute of Tashkent region, Chirchik, Amir Timur street, 104, E-mail:

Abstract. Background. Acetylene derivatives are raw materials for the synthesis of hard-to-reach carbo- and heterocycles. The chemical properties of substances containing a triple bond are of interest in connection with the search for biologically active substances among them. The synthesis of compounds on this basis with organic azides is also relevant.

Purpose: Synthesis of phenylazide and some aromatic azides containing substituents in the para state. Study of the reactions of an azide-alkyne cyclic compound with the resulting azides and propargyloxybenzaldehydes in the presence of a catalyst. Study of the effect of solvent, temperature and catalyst on the course of the reaction. Establishment of the structure of the obtained substances.

Methodology. Phenyl azide and some aromatic azides containing substituents in the para position have been synthesized. Their reactions of a 1,3-dipolar cyclic compound between para-propargyloxybenzaldehydes in the presence of a catalyst were studied. The structure of the synthesized substances was established with -IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR - spectral methods.

Originality: Para-propargyloxybenzaldehyde and the corresponding 4-((1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy)benzaldehydes were synthesized for the first time. Copper(I) salts were used as a catalyst. Copper(I) iodide was used as a catalyst, and the factors influencing the course of the reaction were determined.

Findings. 4-((1-Phenyl-1Н-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy)benzaldehyde derivatives were synthesized in high yields. Their IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra were analyzed and their structures were proved.

Key words: azide-alkyne reaction of a cyclic compound, para-bromophenylazide, para-propargyloxybenzaldehyde, copper(I) halide, ortho-xylene, 1H NMR spectroscopy, 4-((1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole- 4-yl)methoxy)benzaldehyde


- para-propargyloxybenzaldehyde based on para-oxybenzaldehyde;

- phenylazide and its derivatives containing substituents in the para-position;

- reactions of azide-alkyne cyclic compound;

- formation of an isomer (1,4-isomer) in a cyclic addition reaction;

- studied the role of temperature, time and catalyst


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14. Kirgizov F.B., Abdugafurov I.A., Ortikov I.S.//Uzbek chemical journal.- 2021.-No1.- P. 53-61 (in Russian)

15. Abdugafurov I.A., Qirgizov F.B., Ortikov I.S. // European Journal of chemistry.-12 (1). -2021.-P.13-17.

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To cite this article: S. G. Usmanova, I. A. Abdugafurov, I. S. Ortikov, A. J. Kurbanova. Synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles derivatives   on the base of proparhyloxy- benzaldehydes and some aromatic azides  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr6. - Pp.51-59

Received: 16.11.2021; Accepted: 14.01.2022; Published: 14.01.2022


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UDK 547.789:547.298.3

Z. J. Pulatova, A. R. Khurramov, Kh. M. Bobakulov, B. J. Elmuradov


Institute of Chemistry of Plant Substances of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, E-mail:

Abstract. Background. Azomethines are known to be important intermediates for the preparation of benzoxazoles, which are biologically active compounds. Therefore, the development of methods for the synthesis of substituted azomethines is topical.

Purpose: carrying out reactions of (substituted) aminophenols with aromatic aldehydes under various conditions and determining the factors affecting the type of products, determining their structures.

Methodology. The reactions of 2-aminophenol, 4-nitro-2-aminophenol, 4-chloro-2-aminophenols with aldehydes were carried out under various conditions. As a result, azomethine and acetamide were obtained in high yields instead of the expected 2-arylbenzoxazoles. The structure of the synthesized substances was proved on the basis of the results of 1Hba 13C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis.

Originality: The synthesis of azomethines, components of the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, was carried out. It was found that the condensation of aminophenols and aromatic aldehydes can proceed in different directions.

Findings. Azomethine amides have been synthesized in high yields and are widely used for the synthesis of substituted benzoxazoles. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of the obtained substances were analyzed, as well as the X-ray diffraction data of single crystals, and their chemical structures were established.

Key words: synthesis, aminophenols, aromatic aldehydes, benzoxazoles, azomethines, cyclization, condensation.


- reaction of aminophenols with aldehydes in ethanol in the absence of a catalyst

- interaction of the initial reagents in an acidic environment, depending on the ratio of the masses of the reagents and temperature.


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To cite this article: Z. J. Pulatova, A. R. Khurramov, Kh. M. Bobakulov, B. J. Elmuradov. Synthesis and structural studies of azomethines and amides - initial compounds for the synthesis of benzoxazoles // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr6. - Pp.59-66. 

Received: 15.10.2021; Accepted: 30.11.2021; Published: 14.01.2022


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UDK 543.48:546.562

C. T. Yulchieva, O. A. Ermatova, Z. A. Smanova, M. Zh. Umaralieva


National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek, Tashkent,,

Abstract. Bacground. Analysis of litrature data has shown the increasing interest to problem of immobilized reagents on polymeric sorbents. Possibility of selective extraction of elements, good kinetical characteristies of sorbents couse possibility of uzing complexoforming immobilizate reagents on bearers for concentration of elements from solutions of complex composition and their extraction from large volumes.

Purpose elabaration of sorbtion-spectrometrical method of determinntion of copper ions by new synthesized reagent 1-(5-methyl-2-pyridylazo) -5-diethylaminophenol.

Metodology. Optimal conditions of sorbtion ions of Cu(II) in statical and dinamical conditions by sorbsionno-photometrical method in dependencl on time, acidity of medium, temperature and some others factors have been determined.

Originality. Using of immobilized reagents of polymeric bearers has allowed to improve value of coeffictent of distribution and also some analytical and metrological parameters of preposed metode of determination ions Cu2+.

Findings. Optimal conditions of immobilization and complexorformation of copper ions (II) by immobilized reagent on e fibrous sorbent in dependenc on nature of medium, time of sorbtion and volume have been determined. It was shown at investigation of pH influence on sorbtion of ions Cu(II) that sorbent has ex tracted them in range of pH 3.0-7.7 (90-100%).

 Key words: analytical reagent, 1-(5-methyl-2-pyridylazo) -5-diethylaminophenol, immobilization, sorbtion spektroskopy, sorbtion, copper ions (II).


- investigations in field of using of immobilized organical reagent on fibrous sorbents;

- division and concentration of copper ions


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15. Madusmanova N.K., Smanova Z.A.,Zhuraev I.I.Properties of the New Analytical Reagent 2-Hydroxy-3-Nitrosonaphthaldehyde// Journal of Analytical Chemistry.-2020.-75(1).-P. 135–138.

16. Nurmukhammadov Z.S., Smanova Z.A.,Tadzhimukhamedov Kh.S., Inatova  M.S.Synthesis and properties of a new analytical reagent, 2-hydroxy-3- nitrosonaphthalene-1-carbaldehyde //Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry.-2014.-50(6).-P. 895–897.

To cite this article: C. T. Yulchieva, O. A. Ermatova, Z. A. Smanova, M. Zh. Umaralieva. Sorption-photometric determination of copper using 1- (5-methyl-2-pyridylazo) -5-diethylaminophenol  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr6. - Pp.67-74. 

Received: 15.10.2021; Accepted: 30.11.2021; Published: 14.01.2022


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UDK 543∙432: 542∙61: 535∙24: 546∙48

D. K. Abdullayeva


Tashkent State Technical University named after Islam Karimov

Abstract. Background. The existing photometric and extraction-photometric methods for the determination of cadmium (II) using organic dyes are highly sensitive, but not very selective, since the complexation of cadmium (II) with organic reagents occurs in the aqueous phase, in which accompanying ions also form complex compounds and interfere with the determination cadmium.

Purpose of the study is to develop a new selective, sensitive, simple and express extraction-photometric method for the determination of cadmium directly in the organic phase.

Methodology. To increase the selectivity of the cadmium (II) determination method, the selective extraction of the cadmium (II) iodide complex ion from acidic solutions with inert organic solvents and its complexation with azoreagents directly in the organic phase was investigated.

Originality. The developed new extraction-photometric determination of cadmium (II), which differs from the existing ones in selectivity, sensitivity, ease of execution and expressiveness, is recommended for the analysis of industrial solutions, wastewater, ores, concentrates, rocks and other chemically complex materials without prior separation of accompanying ions.

Findings. A selective, sensitive, simple and express method of extraction-photometric determination of cadmium (II) directly in the organic phase with the use of inert organic solvents was developed.

Key words: extraction, inert organic solvents, complexation, equilibrium shift method, sensitivity, selectivity, expressiveness, extract, dimethylformamide (DMFA).


- the hydrate-solvate mechanism of selective extraction of cadmium (II);

- the composition of the cadmium (II) iodide complex was determined;

- conclusions are drawn on selectivity and sensitivity of the methods.


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To cite this article: D. K. Abdullayeva. Selective extraction of cadmium (II) and photometric determination of its 2-(2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylmethaaminophenol (PAAF) in the organic phase  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2021. – Nr6. - Pp.74-83. 

Received: 29.12.2021; Accepted: 14.01.2022; Published: 14.01.2022


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