Uzbek Chemical Journal




UDK 543.872

S. N. Rasulova, U. N. Ruziev1, M. A. Ibragimova, H. F. Adinaev, Z. A. Nabieva, Yo. T. Safarov


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 1Scientific and Production Association "Production of rare metals and hard alloys" JSC "Almalyk MMC

Abstract.Background. One of the types of industrial wastes of Almalyk MMC JSC is cakes of nitric acid leaching of molybdenum concentrates. stored in the tailings of the plant, allowing to increase the output of the plant's main products. They include 4.1% molybdenum, 20-25 g/t of gold and other valuable components.

Purpose: to compare the efficiency of methods for processing MoK and molybdenum cakes by electrooxidation in a sulfuric acid medium.

Methodology. We used a MoK and Mo-cake leaching unit, a direct current source up to 20 A, generating chlorine at the anode. Mo(VI), Аu(III), Cu(II) ions were analyzed spectrometrically (ААС Perkin-Elmer 3030В, ICP-Agilent 7500 IСP MS). Active chlorine NaClO was determined according to GOST 18190-72.

Originality. The introduction of gold into the composition of Mo-cake in contact with hypochlorite ions is considered. Mathematical modeling of the process was carried out with the formulation of a three-factor experiment. An alternative to the roasting-soda scheme of the Mo-cake electrooxidation method is shown.

Findings. The kinetics of oxidative leaching by hypochlorite ions of components from Mo-cakes in a sulfuric acid medium was studied.

Key words: sulfide minerals, Mo-concentrate, cake, electrolysis, current density, sodium hypochlorite, sulfuric acid medium, hydrometallurgy.


- anodic oxidation of molybdenum cake in sulfuric acid medium was studied;

- electrooxidation of Mo-cakes in sulfuric acid medium’s parameters;

- the data on the nature of Mo-cake leaching products were obtained.


1. S.N. Rasulova, U.N. Ruziev, V.P. Guro, H.T. Sharipov, H.F. Adinaev, A.R. Safarov. Processing of molybdenum cakes of Almalyk MMC JSC by electrooxidation in NaCl solutions. Part 1 // Uzbek. chem. well. - 2022. - No. 1. - P.3-10. (in Russian)

2. S.N. Rasulova, V.P. Guro, E.T. Safarov et al. Kinetics of comparative reagent leaching of Mo-cinder and Mo-concentrate // Uzb. chem. J.-2019.-№5.- P.3-9. (in Russian)

3. A.V. Vanyukov, V.Ya. Zaitsev. Theory of pyrometallurgical processes.-M.: Metallurgy, 1993.(in Russian)

4. S.N. Paderin, V.V. Filippov. Theory and calculations of metallurgical systems and processes.- M.: Izd-vo MISiS, 2001. (in Russian)

5. Heat engineering of metallurgical production. T 1. Theoretical foundations / V.A. Krivandin, V.A. Arutyunov, V.V. Belousov and others - M.: Publishing House of MISiS, 2002. (in Russian)

6. A.A. Yusupkhodzhaev, S.B. Mirzazhonova, Sh.T. Khozhiev. Increasing the complexity of the use of raw materials in the processing of sulfide copper concentrates // Proceedings of the III International Scientific and Practical Conference “Scientific and Practical Results in 2016. Prospects for their Development” (December 27-28, 2016, Abu-Dhabi, UAE). –Ajman.-2017.- No. 1(17).- Vol. 1.-P. 45-48. (in Russian)

7. A.Kh. Safarov, Sh.T. Khozhiev. Development of waste-free gold production technology // International scientific journal “Young Scientist”, - No. 17 (255), part I. - Kazan: Young Scientist Publishing House, 2019 .- P. 47–49.(in Russian)

8. F. Habashi, “Abandoned but Not Forgotten. The Recent History of Copper Hydrometallurgy,” In: P. A. Riveras, et al., Eds., The John E. Dutrizac Symposium on Copper Hydrometallurgy, CIM.- Montreal.- 2007.-Pp. 3-19.

9. A.N. Zelikman. Metallurgy of rare metals.-M.: Metallurgy, 1980. (in Russian)

10. L.I. Leontiev. Metallurgy of non-ferrous and rare metals. - M., 2002 - 345s (in Russian).

11. G.M. Voldman, A.N. Zelikman Theory of hydrometallurgical processes.- M.: Metallurgy, 2003. (in Russian)

12. V.F. Borbat. Hydrometallurgy. - M.: Metallurgy, 1986. -263 p. (in Russian)

13. F. Habashi, “Metals from Ores. An Introduction to Extractive Metallurgy.-”// Métallurgie Extractive Québec.- Québec City.- 2003.

To cite this article:S. N. Rasulova, U. N. Ruziev, M. A. Ibragimova, H. F. Adinaev, Z. A. Nabieva, Yo. T. Safarov. Processing of molybdenum cake of Almalyk MMC JSC by electrooxidation method in NaCl solutions. Part 2  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2022. – Nr2. - Pp.3-8. 

Received:15.02.2022; Accepted: 15.03.2022; Published: 14.04.2022


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UDK 541.123.4

E. S. Khusanov, J. S. Shukurov, A. S. Togasharov, S. Tukhtaev


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan E-mail:

Abstract.Background. The areas under cotton are shrinking, while those under vegetable and grain crops are growing. It is necessary to increase the yield of cotton growing through the use of agricultural practices, defoliants with physiologically active substances that have a spectrum of action on insecticides and herbicides. All this leads to an increase in productivity and the use of mechanization during harvesting.

Purpose: physical and chemical substantiation of the process of obtaining complex physiologically active defoliants based on phosphatecarbamide and diethanolamine.

Methodology. Spectrophotometric method determined the amount of phosphorus and amide nitrogen. The viscosity of the system was studied on a VPZh viscometer, the pH of the solutions was studied on a FE 20 METTLER TOLEDO.

Originality. A polythermal diagram and a "composition-property" system containing urea phosphate, diethanolamine and water were constructed.

Findings. A solubility diagram of the H3PO4•CO(NH2)2 - NH(C2H4OH)2 - H2O system was constructed in the temperature range from -52.6 to 80.0°C. Viscosity, density, refractive index and pH of the system were studied with the addition of diethanolamine to 40% urea phosphate.

Key words: phosphate, urea, diethanolamine, solubility diagram, viscosity, density, refractive index.


- areas of crystallization of substances in the system are limited;

- optimal conditions for obtaining a solution of diethanolammoniumcarbamide phosphate.


1. Tsyplenkova A.Yu., Koltsova O.V., Lobanov N.N., Ershov M.A., Skvortsov V.G. Physico-chemical systems of dicarboxylic acids, amino alcohol and water at 25 0C. // Butlerov Communications.- 2013.- T. 36.- No. 11. P.146-155. ROI: jbc-01/13-36-11-146.(In Russian)

2. Skvortsov V.G., Koltsova O.V., Pylchikova Yu.Yu. and others // Vestn. Chuvash. state teacher un-ta im. AND I. Yakovleva.-2009.- No. 2.- P. 101. (In Russian)

3. Shukurov Zh.S., Askarova M.K., Tukhtaev S.// Solubility of components in the system H3PO4·CO(NH2)2 - C2H5OH - H2O.// Reports of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan. -Tashkent. - 2016. - No. 2. -S. 38-41. (In Russian)

4. Khusanov E.S., Shukurov Zh.S., Togasharov A.S. Solubility of components in the aqueous system of triethanolamine carbamide phosphate. //Uz. Chem. Jour.- 2021.- №2.- P. 19. (In Russian)

5. Shukurov Zh.S., Ishankhodzhaev S.S., Askarova M.K., Tukhtaev S. Study of the solubility of components in the system NaClO3 ∙ 2CO(NH2)2-NH2C2H4OH∙CH3COOH - H2O.// Zh. inorganic chemistry. -2011.- T. 56. No. 3. S. 502-505. Russian)

6. Sidikov A.A., Toghasharov A.S., Shukurov J.S., Tukhtaev S. Solubility and rheological prop-erties of the system NaClO3CO(NH2)2–H2SO4N(C2H4OH)3-H2O. //Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 66, 1554–1560 (2021). Russian)

7. Umarov A.A., Kutyanin L.I. New defoliants: search, properties, applications. - M.: Khimiya, 2000. 143 p.(In Russian)

8. Khamdamova Sh.Sh., Tukhtaev S., Dadamukhamedova N. // Universum: tehn.nauki.-2018. T. 55. - No. 10.- P. 42. Russian)

9. Bobozhonov, Z.S., Shukurov, Z.S., Togasharov, A.S. et al. //Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 66, 1031–1035 (2021). Russian)

10. Washio Shigeaki, Kiguchi Yukiaki.// US Patent. Kl 71-113, (A01 No. 9/24), No. 3897241. Ethanolamine l organic carboxylic acid composition for accel-erating fruit repening / US Patent - 1975 No. 387.

11. Abramova G.V., Ryskalieva A.K., Nurakhmetov N.N. et al. Thermochemical properties of some amide acids.//Materialy Int. Scientific and Practical Conf. "Thermodynamics and kinetics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemical processes". Bulletin of KazNU. Ser.chem. -2002. -No. 1.-S. 59–62.(In Russian)

12. Yousef A. Mubarak.// Production of Crystalline Urea Phosphate using the Untreated Jordani-an et Process Phosphoric Acid.// Dep. of Chem. Eng., University of Jordan. Engineering Sciences, -2011. –Vol.38.-No. 1.–P. 61-72.

13. Zh.S. Shukurov, M.K. Askarova, S. Tukhtaev. Solubility of components in the system NaClO3–H3PO4 CO(NH2)2 – H2O. //Chem.Journal. Kaz. –Almaty. -2015. -No. 3. -WITH. 171-174. (In Russian)

14. E.S. Khusanov, Zh.S. Shukurov, A.S. Togasharov et al. // Composite materials.- No. 4.- 2021.- P. 3-5. (In Russian)

15. Nurakhmetov N.N., Beremzhanov B.A., Khanapin K.G. // Polythermal solubility system CO(NH2)2 – H3PO4 – H2O.// Zhurnalprikladnoikhimii.-Leningrad, Nauka Publ.-1973. -Pp. 2405–2408 (In Russian).

16. Isaev FG// The effect of ethanolamines on the yield, quality and lodging of plants.// 12th Mendeleev Congress on the general. and example. chemistry. Ref. Report and message -M.- 1981.- No. 6.-P. 157-158. (In Russian)

17. Koshkin E.I. Physiology of sustainability of agricultural crops: a textbook by E.I. Koshkin. Bustard. - 2010. - P. 638.(In Russian)

18. Shukurov Z.S., Askarova M.K., Tukhtaev S.// Russ. J. Inorg. Chem.-2018.-V. 63.- No. 2.-P. 275. Russian)

19. Khamdamova Sh.Sh. Development of a technology for obtaining a complex acting chlorate-calcium-containing defoliant using industrial waste: Abstract of the thesis. … cand. chem. Sciences. -Tashkent. 2018. (In Russian)

20. Nurakhmetov N.N., Beremzhanov B.A., Khanapin K.G. Solubility polytherm of the system CO(NH2)2 – H3PO4 –H2O.// Journal of Applied Chemistry. - L .: Science. –1973. -P. 2405–2408.(In Russian)

21. Luneva N.K., Petrovskaya L.I., Rekashova N.I. Thermal transformations of the H3PO4-CO(NH2)2 system. //J. appl. chemistry. - 2000. - No. 10. - P. 1585–159.(In Russian)

22. Khaidarov G.Sh.// Development of defoliants based on chlorates, 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid and ethanolamines: Dis. cand…. tech. Sciences. – Tashkent, 1998. -155 p.(In Russian)

To cite this article:E. S. Khusanov, J. S. Shukurov, A. S. Togasharov, S. Tukhtaev. Study of the solubility of components in a system H34 ∙ CО(NH2)2 -NH(C2H4ОH)2 - H2О  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2022. – Nr2. - Pp.9-14. 

Received: 23.02.2022; Accepted: 28.03.2022; Published: 14.04.2022


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K. A. Turaev, M. Kh. Ikramov, Zh. S. Shukurov, A. S. Togasharov


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Abstract.Background.For high-quality harvesting of raw cotton, defoliation is needed: thanks to it, air circulation in the rows of cotton is improved and illumination of developing bolls is improved. In this regard, the production of low-toxic, highly effective defoliants is relevant.

Purpose: physical and chemical substantiation of the process of obtaining an effective defoliant based on calcium tetracarbamidochlorate and sodium chloroacetate.

Methodology. The solubility and rheological properties of solutions in systems including calcium tetraureachlorate and sodium chloroacetate were studied. Visual-polythermal, pycnometric methods were used. The viscosity of the solutions was measured with a VPZh viscometer, and a pH meter FE20 METTLERTOLEDO was used.

Originality. On the basis of binary systems and internal sections of polytherms, a polythermal solubility diagram of the Ca(ClO3)2•4CO(NH2)2–ClCH2COONa–H2O system was constructed in the temperature range from -35.8 to 40.0°C. The crystallization fields of the initial substances and new compound Ca(C2H2ClO2)OH∙H2O. For the [60%Ca(ClO3)2•4CO(NH2)2+40%H2O]–ClCH2COONa system, the viscosity, density, pH media, and refractive indices were determined depending on the ratio of components.

Findings. In the studied system, the crystallization fields of ice, Сa(ClO3)2∙4CO(NH2)2∙2H2O, ClCH2COONa, and Ca(C2H2ClO2)OH∙H2O compounds are delimited. In the "composition-properties" diagram of the system, with the addition of sodium monochloroacetate to 60% calcium tetracarbamidochlorate, a decrease in the crystallization temperature, density and an increase in viscosity, pH, and refractive index were observed.

Key words: calcium tetracarbamidochlorate, sodium monochloroacetate, solubility diagram, viscosity, pH media, density.


– on the diagram of the studied system, the fields of crystallization of the components are delimited;

– the formation of a new compound Ca(C2H2ClO2)OH∙H2O was established;

– the optimal technological parameters for obtaining a liquid defoliant have been established.


1. Umarov A.A., Kutyanin L.I. New defoliants: search, properties, applications. - M.: Khimiya, 2000.(In Russian)

2. Teshaev F., Khaitov B. Journal of Cotton Research and Development (CRDA). –India, -2015. -№1.- Rp. 57-60. Russian)

3. Zubkova N.F., Stonov L.D. Physiological features of the action of defoliants. // Review information NIITEKHIM.-M.-1977.-27p.(In Russian)

4. Khamdamova Sh.Sh., Tukhtaev S. Solubility of components in the systems calcium chlorate (di-tetracarbamidochlorate) – diethanolammonium nitrate – water //Composition materials.- Tashkent. -2017.-№2.-S. 89-94.(In Russian)

5. Melnikov N.N. Chemistry of pesticides. - Moscow: Chemistry, 1968.-138s.(In Russian)

6. Patent 2344118 C2 Russian Federation No. 2007104912. Appl. 02/08/2007; publ. 20.01.2009 Bull. The method of obtaining sodium salt of monochloroacetic acid / V.N. Anikeev, Yu.N. Zhukov, A.A. Lobanova and others. (Russia) Bulletin No. 2. - 2009.(In Russian)

7. Khamdamova Sh.Sh. Development of technology for the production of complex-acting calcium chlorate defoliant from industrial waste: t.f.d (Ds) Avtoref. Dis .. –Tashkent, 2018.-58 p.(In Russian)

8. Ts 00203855-43:2019. Defoliant “UzDEF”. organization standard. -T .: Publishing House of Standards, 2019. -12 p.(In Russian)

9. A.L. Podkorytov, [i dr.]. –Yekaterinburg: Ural University Press, 2015.-19p.

10. MU 4921-88 Guidelines for photometric measurement of the concentration of sodium monochloroacetate in the air of the working area.(In Russian)

11. 11. Trunin A.S. Petrova D.G. Visual-polythermal method / Kuibyshev poly-tech. Inst. Kuibyshev.-1977.(In Russian)

12. Zdanovsky A.B. Gallurgia -L.: Chemistry, 1972.(In Russian)

13. TO 34.15.051 Technical description and operating instructions.(In Russian)

14. Nedoma I. Interpretation of X-ray powders. -M.: Metallurgy, 1975. -423 p.(In Russian)

15. Zinyuk R.Yu., Balykov A.G., Gavrilenko I.B., Shevyakov A.M. IR spectroscopy in inorganic technology - L.: Chemistry, 1983. - 160 p.(In Russian)

16. Smith A. Applied IR spectroscopy. –M.: Mir, 1982. -319 p.(In Russian)

17. K.A. Turaev, A.S. Togasharov, S. Tukhtaev. Study of the mutual influence of components in the system calcium chlorate monochloroacetic acid sodium salt-water. "Improvement and implementation of innovative ideas in the field of chemistry and chemical technology" // Collection of reports and abstracts October 23-24, 2020.-P 144-145.(In Russian)

Tocitethisarticle:K. A. Turaev, M. Kh. Ikramov, Zh. S. Shukurov, A. S. Togasharov. The solubility polyterm in the Сa(ClO3)2•4CO(NH2)2–CH2ClCOONа–Н2О system // Uzbek chemical journal. -2022. – Nr2. - Pp.15-21. 

Received: 01.03.2022; Accepted: 01.04.2022; Published: 14.04.2022


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UDK 541.135

Zh. Kh. Kurbanov, V. P. Guro, F. M. Yusupov, Sh. J. Shamsiev, M. A. Ibragimova, Kh. F. Adinaev


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Abstract.Background. Wastewater from a gas processing plant contains organic compounds of various compositions. There are known methods for cleaning them, among which the oxidizing method stands out for its simplicity, using oxygen or air. Information exists on the effect of accelerators and catalysts on the oxidation process.

Purpose: development of a method for purifying waters of a gas processing enterprise from sulfides and organic compounds,

Methodology. The object of study is the waste water of Mubarek Gas Processing Plant LLC. The composition and concentration of pollutants were controlled, electrochemical measurements were carried out on a PI-50-1 potentiostat.

Originality. Data are presented on the dependence of the reaction rate of anodic oxidation of organic compounds in water on the presence of a catalyst and aeration in it. An electrochemical technology for water purification from sulfides and organic compounds is proposed.

Findings. The kinetic regularities of reactions of anodic oxidation of organic compounds in waste waters of the Mubarek gas processing plant are revealed.

Key words: pollutants, organic compounds, gas processing plant, wastewater, anode material, electrolysis.


- data on the composition of wastewater from a gas processing plant;

 -technology for wastewater treatment of a gas processing plant


1. V.M. Belkov, Choi Sang Won. Methods for deep purification of wastewater from oil products // Chemical industry. -1998. -No. 5. -P. 14-22.(In Russian)

2. E. E. Dmitrieva Liquid-phase oxidation of organic substances contained in waste waters: Abstract of .... Candidate of Chemical Sciences - Vladivostok, 2007.-19 p.(In Russian)

3. E. Sh. Gayazova Oxidative methods in wastewater treatment from difficult-to-oxidize organic compounds. Author's abstract ... candidate of technical sciences - Kazan, 2013.-16 p.(In Russian)

4. Qinhai, H. Photodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 //Journal of Hazardous Materials. - 2008. - Vol.154. Iss.1-3. - P. 795-803.

5. 5. Sun, J-H. Oxidative decomposition of/'-nitroaniline in water by solar photo-Fenton ad-vanced oxidation process // Journal of Hazardous Materials. - 2008. - Vol. 153.-Iss. 1-2. - P. 187-193.

6. Hu, Q. Photodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 // Journal of Hazardous Materials. Online, November 13. - 2007.

7. Feng, J. Discoloration and mineralization of Orange II by using a bentonite clay-based Fe nanocomposite film as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst / J. Feng, X. Hu , P. Lock Yue. // Water Research. - 2005. - Vol. 39. - No 1. - P.89-96.

8. Patent RU2 142 848. Shiverskaya I.P., Voronkov V.V., Polyakov V.V., Apasov V.L. Catalyst for the oxidation of inorganic and organic compounds at the stage of biological wastewater treatment. Reading: 1997.11.21. Published: 1999.12.20.(In Russian)

9. Dutta, K. Chemical oxidation of methylene blue using a Fenton-like reaction // Journal of Hazardous Materials. - 2001. - Vol. 84. –Nr 1.- P.57-71.

10. A. M. Fattakhova, Yu. F. Abdrakhmanova, A. G. Kirsanova, et al. Catalysts for oxidation processes in an aqueous medium. // Bashkir Chem. well. -2010. -T. 17. -No. 5.-P.16-20.(In Russian)

11. Wang, Chih-Ta. Removal of color from real dyeing wastewater by Electro-Fenton technology using a three-dimensional graphite cathode // Journal of Hazardous Materials. - 2008. - Vol. 152.-Iss. 2. - P. 601-606.

12. Abdessalem, A. K. Experimental design methodology applied to electro-Fenton treatment for degradation of herbicide chlortoluron. // Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. - 2008. Vol. 78.-Iss. 3-4. - P. 334-341.

13. Rajkumar, D. Electrochemical treatment of industrial wastewater // Journal of Hazardous Materials. - 2004. - Vol. 113.-Iss. 1-3. - P. 123-129.

14. Szpyrkowicz, L. Influence of anode material on electrochemical oxidation for the treatment of tannery wastewater // Water Research. - 2005. - Vol. 39.-Iss. 8. - P. 1601-161.

15. Deligiorgis, A. Electrochemical oxidation of table olive processing wastewater over boron-doped diamond electrodes: Treatment optimization by factorial design // Water Research. -2008. - Vol. 42.-Iss. 4-5. - P. 1229-1237.

16. Guinea, E. Mineralization of salicylic acid in acidic aqueous medium by electrochemical ad-vanced oxidation processes using platinum and boron-doped diamond as anode and cathodi-cally generated hydrogen peroxide. // Water Research. - 2008. - Vol. 42.-Iss. 1-2. - P. 499-511.

17. Losito, I. Electro-Fenton and photocatalytic oxidation of phenyl-urea herbicides: An insight by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. //Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. - 2008. - Vol. 79.-Iss. 3. - P. 224-236.

18. E. G. Slozhenko. Application of catalytic system H2O2 - Fe2 (Fe3) in water purification from organic compounds. // Chemistry and technology of water.-2004.-T. 26. - No. 3. - P. 219-241.(In Russian)

19. A. V. Zhelovitskaya, E. A. Ermolaeva, and A. F. Dresvyannikov. Oxidation of organic compounds using a hydroxide radical generated in solutions by chemical and electrochemical methods, XVI Tupolev Readings: Int. youth Scientific Conf., Kazan, May 28-29, 2008. // Proceedings of the conference. Kazan: Kazan Publishing House. technol. university - P.211-229.(In Russian)

20. Guro V.P., Ibragimova M.A., Yusupov F.M., Shamsiev Sh.J., Adinaev H.F., Abdikamalova A.B. Development of technology for electrolysis water treatment of Mubarek Gas Processing Plant LLC from hydrogen sulfide. // Uzbek. chem. well. -2021. - No. 3. - P. 3-10.(In Russian)

Tocitethisarticle:Zh. Kh. Kurbanov, V. P. Guro, F. M. Yusupov, Sh. J. Shamsiev, M. A. Ibragimova, Kh. F. Adinaev. Wastewater treatment "Mubarek GPP" LLC from sulfide and organic compounds // Uzbek chemical journal. -2022. – Nr2. - Pp.21-27. 

Received: 25.03.2022; Accepted: 08.04.2022; Published: 14.04.2022


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UDK541.621.793.3; 541.124/128

U. N. Ruziev1, V. P. Guro2, Kh. T. Sharipov2, B. B. Kayumov3, A. A. Niyazmatov4


1Scientific and Production Association "JSC Almalyk MMC", Chirchik; 2IONH AS RUz, Tashkent; 3Navoi Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Navoi; 4LLC "VOCAR", Chirchik. Uzbekistan, E-mail:

Abstract.Background. In the production of hard alloys of the VK-6 grade, it is necessary to maintain a balance of hardness and strength, structure and chemical composition, which affect the yield strength and service life of products made from them.

Purpose: search for solutions to improve the physical and mechanical characteristics of samples (chemical composition, hardness, machining) from VK-6.

Methodology. The object of study is samples of VK-6, taking into account the modification (chemical composition of raw materials, hardness, machining). The elemental composition was studied (ICP-Aligent, 7500 IСP MS), surface (Jeol JSM-6701F, Tokyo Boeki Ltd, Metam RV-21, LOMO); Rockwell hardness GOST 20017-74. Ultimate strength in transverse bending (tensile machine UMM-5) according to GOST 20019-74. Density of sintered samples - according to GOST 20018-74.

Originality. It has been established that sintering in a vacuum-compression furnace increases the strength and wear resistance of VK-6 due to a decrease in porosity.

Findings. From the size-optimized WC powder, additional purification of raw materials, a compact billet was obtained. Using high-temperature compression sintering, WC and Co powders were obtained, which have a perfect structure and increased hardness. It was possible to improve the physical and mechanical properties of products made from them.

Key words: hard alloys, tungsten, cobalt, carbide, WC-Co system, carbidization, products, grade VK-6.


- products made of modified hard alloy VK-6,

- the structure, hardness, density, ultimate strength in bending were studied.


1. Kurlov A.S. Structure and properties of tungsten carbides of various fineness. Dissertation… Ph.D. N. - Yekaterinburg, -2007. – 229 p.(In Russian)

2. B.N. Babich. Metal powders and powder materials. Handbook.-M.: ECOMET, 2005. - 520 p.(In Russian)

3. M. A. Gundina. Energy invariants in the theory of elastoplastic cracks.// Science and Technology (AN RBel).-T.16.-No. 4.-2017.- P. 355-362. DOI: 10.21122/2227-1031-2017-16-4-355-362(In Russian)

4. Patent RU 2532776. Hard alloy based on tungsten (options). Ryzhkin A.A., Ilyasov V.V., Meskhi B.Ch. etc. Application date: 06/21/2013. Published: 10.11.2014 Bull. No. 31.(In Russian)

5. Panov B.C., Chuvilin A.M. Technology and properties of sintered hard alloys and products from them. - M.: MISIS, 2001. - 326 p.(In Russian)

6.Powder Metallurgy of Hardmetals SY1 1HU, England - in Proceedings of Euro-2002 Congress, Losanne, Swetzerland, 2002. - 128 p.

7. GOST 3882-84. Sintered hard alloys.- M.: Gosstandart.–16 p.(In Russian)

8. Xiao Liang Shi, Hua Yang, Gangqin Shao, etc. Nanoindentation study of ultrafine WC–10Co cemented carbide. //Materials characterization.- V.59.-2008.- P.374–379.

9. Falkovsky V.A., Klyachko L.I. hard alloys. - M .: Publishing house "Ore and metals", 2005. - 413 p.(in Russian)

10. J.M. Tarragóa, D. Coureauxa, Y. Torresd, etc. Strength and reliability of WC-Co cemented carbides: Understanding microstructural effects on the basis of R-curve behavior and fractography.//International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials 71.-2018.-221–226.

11. I. Konyashin, B. Ries, Wear damage of cemented carbides with different combinations of WC mean grain size and Co content. Part I: ASTM wear tests.// Int. J. Refract. Met. hard mater. 46.-2014. Part II: laboratory performance tests on rock cutting and drilling, Int. J. Refract. Met. hard mater. 45 (2014) 230–237.

12. I. Konyashin, B. Ries, S. Hlawatschek, A. Mazilkin. Novel industrial hardmetals for mining, construction and wear applications//International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials.- October 2017.- Pp. 211-234, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2017.10.021

13. Gritsenko B.P. et al. (2020) Enhancement of the Wear Resistance of Tungsten Cobalt Carbide Plates Using Ion Implantation and Al–Si–N Coatings. In: Pogrebnjak A., Bondar O. Microstructure and Properties of Micro- and Nanoscale Materials, Films, and Coatings (NAP 2019).//Springer Proceedings in Physics.-Vol 240. Springer, Singapore.

14. Belen Lopez Ezquerraa, Lorena Lozadaa, Henk van den Bergb, etc. Comparison of the thermal shock resistance of WC based cemented carbides with Co and Co-Ni-Cr based binders.//International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials 72 (2018) 89–96.

15. Gärtner, F., Bormann, R., Klassen, etc. (2000). Nano-crystalline Composites for Thermal Spray Applications. //Materials Science Forum, 343-346, 933-940. Doi:10.4028/

16. A. S. Bolokang, C. Banganayi, M. Phasha. Effect of C and milling parameters on the synthesis of WC powders by mechanical alloying.// International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials, 28 (2010), 211–216. Doi:10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2009.09.006

17. Kai-Fei Wang, Guo-Dong Sun, Yue-Dong Wu, etc. Size-controlled synthesis of high-purity tungsten carbide powders via a carbothermic reduction–carburization process.// International Journal of Refractory Metals & Hard Materials 84 (2019) 104-975.

18. Ruziev U.N., Guro V.P., Sharipov Kh.T., Kayumov B.B., Niyazmatov A.A. Identification of the causes of different wear resistance of products made of hard alloy VK-6 of crushing devices of JSC NMMC // Uzbkhimich. j.- 2022.- №1. -C.23-30.(In Russian)

Tocitethisarticle:U. N. Ruziev, V. P. Guro, Kh. T. Sharipov, B. B. Kayumov, A. A. Niyazmatov. Increasing the strength of products from VK-6 hard alloy by improving its structure // Uzbek chemical journal. -2022. – Nr2. - Pp.27-32. 

Received: 25.03.2022; Accepted:12.04.2022; Published: 14.04.2022


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UDK 541.183.6:661.185.1

R. R. Makhkamov, A. Kurbanbaeva, F. Saidkulov, X. Saydakhmedova


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, e-mail:

Abstract. Background. In construction, there is a growing interest in the use of plasticizing surfactants for cement mixtures. The synthesis of import-substituting polyfunctional surfactants with plasticizing properties of cement suspensions is topical.

Purpose. Obtaining surface-active derivatives of benzoic acid, study of their properties and effectiveness for the regulation of cement dispersed systems.

Methodology. The determination of the surface tension of surfactant solutions was carried out on a Rebinder device. To determine the setting time of the cement paste, a Vicat device with a needle was used.

Originality. New surfactants have been obtained in the series of benzoic acid derivatives. It is shown that they are effective retarders of the setting time of cement dispersed systems. It has been established that with an increase in the length of the carbohydrate radical, the effectiveness of setting delay increases, and at surfactant concentrations above CMC, the efficiency of setting delay increases.

Findings. The effect of new surfactants on the technological properties of cement slurries has been studied. It is shown that at low concentrations, the retarding effect of surfactants increases. The formation of surfactant adsorption layers leads to a decrease in the hydration of cement particles. At high concentrations, adsorption of surfactant aggregates on the cement surface occurs, which leads to increased stability of the dispersion and a decrease in the setting rate of the cement mass.

Key words: surfactants, adsorption capacity of surfactants, plasticizing effect, cement dispersed systems.


- surface-active derivatives of benzoic acid slow down the setting of cement slurries.

- at optimal concentrations of surfactants, the setting time of cement increases to five hours.


1. Feneuil B, Pitois O., Roussel N. Effect of surfactants on the yield stress of cement paste // Cement and Concrete Research. -2017. -V. 100.-p. 32–39.

2. Kronberg B., Holmberg K., Lindman B. Types of surfactants, their synthesis, and applications. Surface Chemistry of Surfactants and Polymers.-Wiley, Hoboken: NJ, USA, -2014, - 324p.

3. E. Negim, L. Kozhamzharova, J. Khatib, L. Bekbayeva, C. Williams. Effects of Surfactants on the Properties of Mortar Containing Styrene Methacrylate Superplasticizer // The Scientific world journal. -2014. -V. -P.10 .

4. P. Beata. The influence of selected new generation admixtures on the workability, air-voids parameters and frost-resistance of self compacting concrete // Construction and Building Materials. -2012. -V. 31.-P. 310–319.

5. Eric B., Joel F., Grace O. Oil Well Cement Additives: A Review of the Common Types // J. Oil and Gas Research. -2016. -V. 2.-Issue 2.-P.1-6.

6. M. Michaux, E. Nelson, B. Vidick. Cement chemistry and additives // J.well completion. -2019. -V.1.-N1. -P. 18-25.

7. M. Cappellari, A. Daubresse, M. Chaouche. Influence of organic thickening admixtures on the rheological properties of mortars: relationship with water-retention//Construction and Building Materials. -2013. -V. 38.-p. 950–961.

8. X. Ouyang, Y. Guo, X. Qiu. The feasibility of synthetic surfactant as an air entraining agent for the cement matrix //Construction and Building Materials.-2008. -V. 22.-No. 8.-P.1774–1779.

9. E. Negim, M. Ramli, B. Saad, L. Bekbayeva, M. Saleh. Effects of surfactants on the proper-ties of styrene/methacrylate-type superplasticizer in cement paste // Polymer-Plastics Technol-ogy and Engineering. -2011.-V. 50. No. 9. -P.941–946.

10. L. Ferrari, J. Kaufmann, F. Winnefeld, J. Plank. Interaction of cement model systems with superplasticizers investigations by atomic force microscopy, zeta potential, and adsorption measurements // Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. -2010. -V. 347.-No. 1.-P.15–24.

11. Y. Ohama. Polymer-based admixtures // Cement and Concrete Composites.-1998. -V. 20, no. 2-3. -P.189–212.

12. T. Poinot, A. Govin, P. Grosseau. Impact of hydroxypropylguars on the early age hydration of Portland cement // Cement and Concrete Research. -2013.-V. 44.-p. 69–76.

13. E. Negim, J. Khatib, N. Inkarbekov. Effect of acrylate copolymers on the rheological properties of portland cement mortar pastes, part III // World Applied Sciences Journal. -2013.-V. 23.-No. 4.-P. 549–553.

14. E. Negim, J. Khatib, K. Mutairi, R. Raikhan, G. Mun. The effect of molar ratios of the mon-omers on the physic-mechanical properties of ordinary Portland cement // Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. -2012.-V. 11.-No.8. -P. 1131–1139.

15. W. Fan, F. Stoffelbach, J. Rieger. A new class of organosilane-modified polycarboxylate superplasticizers with low sulfate sensitivity // Cement and Concrete Research. -2012.-V. 42.-No.1. -P. 166–172.

Tocitethisarticle:R. R. Makhkamov, A. Kurbanbaeva, F. Saidkulov, X. Saydakhmedova. Obtaining and investigation of the efficiency of new surfactants for regulating the properties of disperse systems // Uzbek chemical journal. -2022. – Nr2. - Pp.32-38. 

Received: 12.02.2022; Accepted:14.03.2022; Published: 14.04.2022


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UDK 665./.7:66.9

А. M. Khurmamatov, O. Yu. Ismailov


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan,e-mail:

Abstract.Background.During oil refining, scale is formed in heat exchangers from mineral salts. As a result of the low flow rate of oil feedstock in the pipe and exposure to high temperatures, the process of its formation on the surfaces is accelerated. Over time, the working size of the inner diameter of the pipes decreases, the passage of liquids becomes more difficult, the hydraulic resistance increases, and the thermal conductivity of the device decreases.

Purpose. Todetermine the optimal flow rate and temperature of hydrocarbons in the heat exchanger tube, minimize the formation of scale on the surface of the heat exchange tube.

Methodology. Statistical data processing methods were used, generally accepted methods for studying hydrodynamics were tested, using control and measuring instruments when measuring technological parameters.

Originality. Factors of influence on the growth of scale on the inner surface of the heat exchanger tube were determined: when heating hydrocarbon feedstock in it, it is advisable to have a flow rate of liquid feedstock of 0.85 m/s at a temperature of 150-250°C, as a result, the scale thickness is reduced by 1.78 times.

Findings. In the studied mixtures of oil and gas condensate, at a temperature of 50-250°C, a flow rate 0.21 m/s, the scale thickness grew from 0.234 to 0.75 mm. With an increase in the flow rate to 0.42 m/s, its thickness, 0.582 mm, decreased by 1.28 times. An increase in temperature to 150°C led to an increase in the speed of movement of raw materials by 0.64 m/s and thickening of scale from 0.015 to 0.318 mm. Increasing the temperature to 250°C led to a decrease in scale formation. With an increase in speed to 0.85 m/s, the scale thickness increased to 0.318 mm. An increase in temperature to 250°C led to a decrease in the thickness of the scale layer: from 0.318 to 0.228 mm. At a flow rate of 1.0 m/s, an increase in temperature to 150 °C, its thickness grew to 0.252 mm, and with an increase in temperature to 250°C, the thickness of the scale layer decreased to 0.174 mm

Key words: oil, gas condensate, flow rate, temperature, scale, scale layer thickness.


- an increase in the proportion of oil in a mixture with gas condensate leads to an increase in the scale layer;

- the growth of the scale layer reduces the thermal conductivity, increases Р due to a decrease in the permeability of the pipe;


1. Processes and apparatuses of chemical technology / A.A. Zakharova [and others]; Under the editorship of prof. A.A. Zakharova. - M.: Publishing Center "Academy", 2006. - P. 30–53.(in Russian)

2. Monograph Kharlamov S. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer. - LAPLAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2013. - 116 p.(in Russian)

3. Glagoleva O.F., Kapustin V.M., Gyulmisaryan T.G. etc. Technology of oil processing. In 2 parts. Part one. Primary oil refining / Ed. O.F. Glagoleva and V.M. Kapustin. - M.: Chemistry, Kolos, 2006. - 400 p.(in Russian)

4. Salimov Z.S. Oil and gas refining processes and equipment. –T .: «Aloqachi», 2010. - 508 pages (in Uzbek).

5. Pavlov K.F., Romankov P.G., Noskov A.A. Primery i zadachi po kursu protsessov i ap-paratov ximicheskoy teknologii: uchebnoe posobie dlya vuzov / Pod red. P.G. Romankova. -10-e izd., Pererab. and dop. - L. : Chemistry, 1987. - p. 529.(in Russian)

6. Ismailov O.Yu., Khudoiberdiev A.A., Khurmamatov A.M. Issledovanie zavisimosti ko-effitsienta teploperedachi ot tolshchiny nakipi i rejima dvijeniya nagrevaemoy nefte-gazokondensatnoy smesi v horizontalnoy trube // Nauchno-tehnicheskiy zhurnal «Neftepererabotka i neftehimiya» .- Moscow. - 2017. - Nr2. - P. 42-45.(in Russian)

7. Mukhamedov B.I., Isroilova G.B. Umarov A.A. Some aspects of intensification of the process of heat exchange of oil and gas condensate mixtures. // Sbornik trudov respublikan-skoy nauchno-tehnicheskoy konferentsii. "Actual problems of oil and gas processing in Uzbekistan". - Tashkent. -2012. - P. 234-238.(in Russian)

8. Shterenlixt D.V. Hydraulics: Uchebnik dlya vuzov. - V 2-x kn .: Kn. 1. - 2-e izd., Pererab. I dop. - M .: Energoatomizdat, 1991. - 367 p.(in Russian)

9. Xudayberdiev A.A .. Artikov A.A., Salomov X.T. Distribution nagara in predvaritel-nyx distillyatorax ND-1250. // Maslo-jirovaya promыshlennost.- 1983. - Nr11.–P. 11-13.(in Russian)

10. Manovyan A.K. Technology pervichnoy pererabotki nefti i prirodnogo gaza: uchebnoe posobie dlya vuzov. 2nd ed. - M., 2001. - 569 p.(in Russian)

11. Ismailov O.Yu., Khudayberdiev A.A., Khurmamatov A.M. Issledovanie zavisimosti ko-effitsienta teploperedachi ot tolshchiny nakipi i rejima dvijeniya nagrevaemoy nefte-gazokondensatnoy smesi v horizontalnoy trube // Nauchno-tehnicheskiy zhurnal «Neftepererabotka i neftehimiya». - 2017. -Nr2. - P. 42–45.(in Russian)

12. Ismailov O.Yu.Ustanovka dlya izucheniya obrazovaniya otlozheniya vnutrenney poverxno-sti trub teploobmennyx apparatov // Uzbekskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal. - Tashkent. –2016. - Nr6. –P. 49-55.(in Russian)

Tocitethisarticle:А. M. Khurmamatov, O. Yu. Ismailov. Effects of temperature and velocity of iquid hydrocarbons on the process of scheduling in the heat exchange tube // Uzbek chemical journal. -2022. – Nr2. - Pp.38-45. 

Received: 30.03.2022; Accepted:11.04.2022; Published: 14.04.2022


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UDK 666.7:546.05

Z. R. Kadirova, Z. K. Babaev, Z. M. Kuryazov, Z. B. Jumaniyazov, Sh. M. Masharipova


1Urgench State University, IGIC AS RUz, Tashkent, M.Ulugbek st. 77a,

Abstract.Background. A number of studies is being carried out aimed at accelerating the firing process of ceramic masses due to mechanical activation, which saves energy and improves the quality of the product. We note the low level of scientific research in this area in our country.

Purpose. The purpose of the study: to analyze the possibility of using the mechanical activation method to improve the quality and reduce the cost of ceramic products based on loess-like rock.

Methodology. Modern methods of physical-chemical and physical-mechanical studies were used, including laser diffraction (diffraction analyzer ANALYSETTE 22 Nano Tec plus.), X-ray and electron microscopy methods.

Originally. It is shown that the mechanical activation of loess-like rocks leads to an increase in the number of clay particles by 63.7%, dust particles by 28.25%, and a decrease in the number of sand grains by 58.7%. It is noted that the technological properties of this mass have changed, including plasticity - from 5.0 to 10.4; semi-finished product compressive strength - from 1.09 to 1.24 MPa.

Findings. It is shown that the optimal grinding time is 120 min. The plasticity of the formed mass is increased by (94.6%). The grinding of loess-like rock and glass flour leads to an increase in the amount of clay particles by 63.7%, dust particles by 28.25%, and sandy particles by 58.7%. The compressive strength can be increased (86.5%) and the cooking temperature is reduced by 50°C.

Key words: loess-like rocks, glass flour, mechanical activation, grinding, mineralogical composition, pressing, strength, firing.


 - mechanical activation helps to reduce the specific surface area;

 - reduction range - from 1620 to 2310 cm2/g;

 - improving the technological properties of the ceramic mass;

 - it will be possible to reduce the preparation time of the mass;


1. Rheology applied to ceramics (theory and practice) / ed. by L. Boscardin. - Mo-dena: SALA, 2006. - 473p.

2. Ovchinnikov, N.L. Effect of mechanical activation of montmorillonite on the intercalation efficiency of polyhydroxyaluminumcations in the formation of pillar structure / N.L. Ovchinnikov, V.V. Arbuznikov, A.P. Kapinos et al. // Nanotechnologies in Russia. - 2015. - Vol. 3. – P.254–260.

3. Lesovik V.S., Strokova V.V., Volodchenko A.A. Influence of nanosized raw materials on the processes of structure formation in silicate systems // Bulletin of the Belgorod State Technological University. V.G. Shukhov. - 2010. - No. 1. - P.13-17.(in Russian)

4. Babayev Z. K. [id.]. Waste of ceramic brick as a raw material for the production of restoration materials of architectural monuments // Eastern European Scientific Journal. - No. 56. -2020. -P. 63–66.

5. Lesovik V. S., Babayev Z. K. [id.]. Analysis of the Causes of Brickwork Efflorescence in the Aral Sea Region // Glass and Ceramics.-2020.-No. 7–8 (77).- P. 277–279.

6. Storozhenko G.I. Pilot-industrial approbation of the technology of fine grinding of mineral, technogenic and carbonized clay raw materials for the production of wall ceramics / G.I. Storozhenko, V.D. Chivelev, N.G. Gurov, L.V. Kotlyarova // Building materials. - 2012. - No. 5. - P. 48–51.(in Russian)

7. A.s. 1719077 RF. Device for grinding and drying / Yu.A. Korotkov, V.N. Sorokin // Bul. - 1992. - No. 10. - P.22.(in Russian)

8. Moroz I.I. Technology of building ceramics. Textbook / I.I. Freezing. - M.: EKOLIT, 2011. - 384 p.(in Russian)

9. Salakhov A.M. Building ceramics based on highly dispersed compositions / A.M. Salakhov, G.R. Tuktarova, V.P. Morozov / / Building materials. - 2006. - No. 12. - P. 8–9.(in Russian)

10. Narikov K.A. Investigation of the properties of wall ceramics using a mechanically activated composite additive / K.A. Narikov, A.U. Zhantore // Young scientist. - 2015. - No. 20. - P.49–51.(in Russian)

11. Andryushkova O.V. Mechanochemistry of creating materials with given properties: textbook / O.V. Andryushkova, V.A. Poluboyarov, I.A. Pauli. - 2nd ed. - Novosibirsk: Publishing House of NSTU, 2010. - 352p.(in Russian)

12. Yushkevich M.O. Technology of ceramics / M.O. Yushkevich, M.I. Rogovoy. - Moscow: Book on Demand, 2012. - 348p.(in Russian)

Tocitethisarticle:Z. R. Kadirova, Z. K. Babaev, Z. M. Kuryazov, Z. B. Jumaniyazov, Sh. M. Masharipova. Change in the physical and mechanical properties of a ceramic shard based on loess-like rocks due to mechanical activation // Uzbek chemical journal. -2022. – Nr2. - Pp.46-52. 

Received: 12.02.2022; Accepted:11.04.2022; Published: 14.04.2022


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UDK 631.811.98

B. Kh. Kucharov, A. B. Ibragimov,  R. N. Kim, L. E. Mamasalieva, O. V.  Miachina, M. V. Yunusova,O. S. Narzullaev


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Abstract.Background. It is known that due to plant diseases, seed treatment before sowing is necessary, because for this reason, up to 2.96% of the raw cotton crop per year is lost. Etching with one preparation, with a single fungicidal activity, does not lead to a positive effect. Therefore, it is necessary to rely on a rational combination of fungicides, insecticides, and plant growth stimulants.

Purpose: to evaluate the biological effectiveness of seed treaters, based on the identification of the most promising, biologically active drugs.

Methodology. Laboratory experiments on germination and germination of cotton seeds. Biological activity was evaluated according to the indicators of sowing qualities of UzNIIKh.

Originality. For the first time, a biological assessment of new synthesized seed dressing compounds was given.

Findings. The selection of effective compounds was carried out, the optimal concentrations of protectants were identified, from the action of which no toxic effect was observed.

Key words: seed disinfectants, germination, stimulating effect, dimethylol urea, potassium butyl xanthate, monoethanolamine


- screening for compounds with fungicidal and growth-stimulating activity;

- disinfecting effect, stimulating effect on the energy of germination.


1. Golyshin N. M. Fungicides in agriculture. -M.: Kolos, 1970. –182 p.(in Russian)

2. Yakovlev V.G., Davydov A.M., Dunaeva T.P., Zemchenkova G.K. Aktamyr, TPS 350g/l - A new preparative form that increases the biological activity of tetramethylthiuram disulfide. Reaktiv 2001//Abstracts 14 Int. Scientific and practical conference. – Ufa. -2001.-p.206(in Russian)

3. Melnikov N.N., Novozhikov K.V., Belan S.G. and others. Handbook of pesticides. - M.: Chemistry, 1974. – 768p.(in Russian)

4. Kagan Yu.S. General toxicology of pesticides. -Kiev: Health, 1981. -176 p.(in Russian)

5. Polyakov N. M. Chemical method of protecting plants from diseases. – L.: Kolos, 1971. – 165 p.(in Russian)

6. -2019.(in Russian)

7. Fakhrutdinov M.Z., Rashidova S.Sh. The use of the drug "Uzkhitan" as a growth regulator of citrus plants//RAS. -2018.-No.3-2.-P.36-38.(in Russian)

8. Rashidova D.K., Amanturdiev Sh.B., Sharipov Sh.T., Rashidova S.Sh. Study of the effect of nanopolymer preparations on the sowing qualities of cotton seeds//Izvestiya NV AUK. -2019. -3 (55). 108-113.(in Russian)

9. Amanturdiev Sh.B., Rashidova D.K. Influence of nanopreparations on components of wheat yield // Actual problems of modern science. -2018. -No. 6 (103). -P. 168-173.(in Russian)

10. Effect of seed encrustation with mixtures of N-phosphonomethylglycine and epibrassinolide on plant growth / N. A. Laman [et al.] // Dokl. NAS of Belarus.-2016.-T.60.No.6.-P.84–90.(in Russian)

11. Influence of the structure of chitosan biopolymer on its bactericidal activity / Zh.T. Azimov, B.L. Oksengendler, N.N. Turaeva, S.Sh. Rashidova // High-molecular compounds. -Serie A. -2013. -T. 55. -No. 2. -P. 165.(in Russian)

12. Milusheva R.Yu., Rashidova S.Sh. Bioactive properties of nanochitosan Bombyx Mori // High-molecular compounds. -Series S.-2017. -T.59. - No. 1. -P. 33-39.(in Russian)

13. Rashidova D.K. Application of biologically active polymers on cotton. -M.: LAP. LAMBERG Academe Publishing, 2017. -132 p.(in Russian)

14. The role of nanotechnologies in increasing the productivity of fields and economically valuable traits of cotton / D.K. Rashidova, G. Bahronova, V.N. Shpilevsky, S.Sh. Rashidova // Scientific and practical ways to improve environmental sustainability and socio-economic support of agricultural production//Materialy Int. scientific and practical. conference dedicated to the year of ecology in Russia. -2017. -P. 3-6.(in Russian)

15. Fungicidal properties of Bombyx Mori chitosan nanosystems with copper ions /N.R.Vokhidova, M.E.Sattarov, N.D.Kareva, S.Sh. Rashidova // Microbiology. -2014. -T. 83. -No. 6. -P. 653.(in Russian)

16. Vokhidova N.R., Rashidova S.S. Synthesis and stabilization of cobalt and cooper nanoparticles by chitosan Bombyx Mori // Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials. -2016. -Nr6. -P.1380-1386. (in Russian)

Tocitethisarticle:B. Kh. Kucharov, A. B. Ibragimov,  R. N. Kim, L. E. Mamasalieva, O. V.  Miachina, M. V. Yunusova, O. S. Narzullaev. Fungicidal and biological activity of new compositions as treatments for cotton seeds // Uzbek chemical journal. -2022. – Nr2. - Pp.52-60. 

Received: 22.02.2022; Accepted: 22.03.2022; Published: 14.04.2022


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UDK 541.64

Sh. Sh. Khudoyberdiyev, N. R.Vokhidova, S. Sh. Rashidova


Institute of Chemistry and Physics of Polymers of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent,

Abstract.Background. Research is underway to obtain three-component interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPECs) of chitosan with polyanions and polyampholytes. The presence of a surface charge in the macromolecule of three-component IPECs can effectively immobilize oppositely charged particles.

Purpose: obtaining stable three-component interpolyelectrolyte complexes based on Bombyxmori chitosan and studying their physicochemical properties.

Methodology. We used conductometric titration, DLS, Litesizer and other research methods.

Originality.Three-component interpolyelectrolyte complexes based on natural macromolecules have been obtained and their hydrodynamic parameters have been studied.

Findings.The compositions and hydrodynamic dimensions of three-component complexes of chitosan were revealed. It has been established that at pH 6.3 binary complexes of chitosan/Na-CMC interact with collagen at 1:0.75:0.01 wt. ratio, where the sum of the surface charge of the complex is equal to zero. The hydrodynamic particle sizes of ternary IPECs vary from 98 to 132 nm.

Key words:Bombyxmori chitosan, Na-CMC, collagen, three-component, interpolyelectrolyte complexes, polydispersity index, diffusion coefficient, hydrodynamic particle size


- chitosan and its interpolyelectrolyte complexes;

- non-toxic polymers are extracted from renewable natural sources;

- three-component interpolyelectrolyte complexes in medical practice.


1. RoyJ., FerriA., GiraudS., Jinping, G., SalaünF. Chitosan-carboxymethylcellulose-based poly-electrolyte complexation and microcapsule shell formulation. //International journal of molecular sciences.-2018.- 19(9), 2521. DOI:10.3390/ijms19092521

2. Jahit I.S., Nazmi N.N.M., Isa M.I.N. and Sarbon N.M. Preparation and physical properties of gelatin/CMC/chitosan composite films as affected by drying temperature. //International Food Research Journal. -2016.-23(3):1068-1074

3. Cherno N.K., Ozolina S.A., Kapustyan A.I. Chitosan-pectin interpolyelectrolyte complex as a matrix for trypsin immobilization. 40-43.(in Russian)

4. Xianqun C., Shengxue H., Bangrui Y., Yilei C., Jianmin Y., Feng L., YunquanZh., Xianai Sh. prevention. //Carbohydrate Polymers 2018. – 201, pp. 201-210. DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.08.065.

5. Ioan-Avram N., Anton F., Denisa F., Georgeta V., Mădălina G.A., Ecaterina A. Hybrid colla-gen-carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyapatite compositematerials for bone tissueregeneration. //U.P.B. sci. Bull., Series B.-Vol. 77.Iss.1.2015.–Pp.1-12

6. Aminatun H.D., Widiyanti P., Amrillah T., Nia W.A., Firdania I.T., & Abdullah, C.A.C. //Applied Sciences. -2020.-10(19), 6970; DOI:10.3390/app10196970.

7. Liuyun J., Yubao L., Chengdong X. Preparation and biological properties of a novel composite scaffoldof nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose for bonetissue engineer-ing.//Journal of biomedical science.-2009. -16:65.DOI:10.1186/1423-0127-16-65.

8. Wang X., Li Y., Wei J., de Groot K. Development of biomimeticnano-hydroxyapatite/poly(hexamethyleneadipamide) composites. // Biomaterials.-2002. -23(24), 4787–4791. DOI:10.1016/s0142-9612(02)00229-6

9. Xiaoliang W., Xudong L., Xiaomin W., Jian L., HuichuanZh., XingdongZh and Zhongwei G.. Investigation of a collagen-chitosan-hydroxyapatite system for novel bone substitutes. // Bioceramics. -2019.- Pp. 415-418.

10. Charlena A.B., Setyanto T.W and Erizal. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite-collagen-chitosan (Ha/Col/Chi) composite by using ex-situ wet precipitation method.//Rasayan J. Chem.-2017. -10(3). -Pr. 766-770.

11. Vokhidova N.R., Ergashev K.H., Rashidova, S.S. Hydroxyapatite-Chitosan Bombyx mori: Synthesis and Physicochemical Properties.// Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials.-2020. -30.- P. 3357-3368. DOI:10.1007/s10904-020-01649-9

12. Nandhini DP., Subashini S., Pandimadevi M. Preparation and characterization ofcolla-gen/chitosan/sodium alginate biocompositeelectrospunnanofibers.// World journal of pharmaceutical research.-Vol 7. Issue 01.-2018. -DOI:10.20959/wjpr20181-10489.

13. Popryadukhin P.V., Yukina G.Yu., Dobrovolskaya I.P., Ivan'kova E.M., Yudin V.E. Porous bioresorbable matrices based on chitosan, alginate and collagen in the wall of the rabbit uterus after caesarean section. //International Journal of Applied and Fundamental Research.-2018. - No. 6.S. 112-119.(in Russian)

14. Widiyanti P., Rini N.D.W., Kirana M.N. and Astutik T. Synthesis and characterization of collagen-chitosan-sodium hyaluronates as artificial cornea.//Journal of physics: conference.- series. 1417 2019.- App. 1-4.

15. Rashidova S.Sh., Milusheva R.Yu. Chitinichitosan Bombyxmori: synthesis, properties and applications. - Tashkent: Fan, 2009. - 246 p.(in Russian)

16. YuldoshovSh.A., Sarymsakov A.A. Low and highly substituted carboxymethyl cellulose synthesis from powdered and microcrystalline cellulose. //The American Journal of applied sciences.-V2.-Issue 10.-2020. -Pp. 83-96.

17. Temirova M.I., Qodirov T.J. “Leather and fur technology” // Tashkent, Turan - Iqbol.- 2005. - 255p.(in Uzbek)

18. Squirrels. Guidelines for the laboratory workshop on the discipline "Biochemistry" O.N. Makaseeva, O.V. Dudinskaya, L.M. Tkachenko. - Mogilev: MGUP, 2003. - 37p.(in Russian)

19. Vohidova N.R., Khudoiberdiev Sh.Sh., Panova I.G., Yaroslavov A.A., Rashidova S.Sh. "On the preparation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes of chitosan Bombyx mori" // Uzbek chemical journal-Tashkent. -2019.-Nr3.-P. 62-67.(in Russian)

Tocitethisarticle:Sh. Sh. Khudoyberdiyev, N. R.Vokhidova, S. Sh. Rashidova. On obtaining and properties of three-component interpolyelectrolyte complexes // Uzbek chemical journal. -2022. – Nr2. - Pp.61-67. 

Received: 30.03.2022; Accepted: 13.04.2022; Published: 14.04.2022


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G. T. Nuraliyev, P. J. Tojiev, X. X. Turaev, A. T. Djalilov1


Termez State University, 1OOO Tashkent Scientific-Research Institute of Chemical Technology, E-mail:

Abstract.Background. Today, studies of the synthesis of organic oligomers containing polyfunctional groups and their application in the development of composite materials are topical. Synthesis of flame retardant oligomers for new materials and structures is an urgent task

Purpose: obtaining heat-resistant and mechanically strong thermoplastic composite materials by filling polypropylene (PP) with nitrogen-, phosphorus- and metal-containing oligomers.

Methodology. The physical and mechanical properties of filled polypropylene compositions were studied, the melt flow index was determined by viscometry, bending strength, two-bearing bending, Charpy impact strength, flammability by the oxygen index method, and thermophysical properties by DTGA.

Originality. The physicomechanical and thermophysical properties of polypropylene filled with nitrogen-, phosphorus-, and metal-containing oligomers have been determined.

Findings.To obtain a composite material based on PP, the content of nitrogen-, phosphorus-, and metal-containing oligomers was changed. An assessment of the rheological properties of the filled composites showed that with an increase in their proportion, the fluidity of the compositions decreased, however, the resulting compositions can be processed by injection molding. The optimal ratio of nitrogen-, phosphorus-, and metal-containing oligomers in the mixture has been found.

Key words: polypropylene, nitrogen-, phosphorus-, metal-containing oligomers, microscopy, chemical, mechanical properties.


- physical and mechanical properties of the developed compositions;

- nitrogen-, phosphorus-, metal-containing oligomers as fillers.


1. Umarov Sh.Sh., Tojiev P.J., Turaev X.X., Djalilov A.T. Structure and properties of polymers, filled with oxides of metals // Uzbek chemical journal. - Tashkent. -2021.- Nr4. -P.18-24. (in Russian)

2. Dusanov R.X., Tojiev P.J., Turaev X.X., Djalilov A.T. Structure and properties of polyami-da-6, filled with vermiculite // Universum: chemistry and biology: elektron.nauch.jurnal. -2020.-Nr10 (76). -P. 54-57.(in Russian)

3. GOST 11645-73 (ASTM D 1238). Plastics. Method for determining the fluidity index of a thermoplastic melt. Introduction from01.01.1975. M .: P.12.(in Russian)

4. GOST 9550-81 (Plastics. Methods for determining the modulus of elasticity in tension, compression and bending) Introduction from26.08.1981 P. 15. (in Russian)

5. GOST 4647-80 (ASTM D 638). Plastics. Method for determining impact strength according to Charpy. Introduction from01.06.1981, P.27. (in Russian)

6. GOST 11262-80 (ASTM D 638). Plastics. Tensile test method. Introduction from 01.12.1980, P.16. (in Russian)

7. GOST 4651-2014 (ASTM D 638). Plastics. Compression test method. Introduction from 01.03.2015. M .: Standartinform, 2014, P.20.(in Russian)

8. Chukov N. A. Composite materials based on polypropylene and nanoparticles: Dissertation… Cand… Techn. nauk.-Nalchik, 2011.- 110 p .: il. RGBOD, 61 11-5 / 1845(in Russian)

9. Henini M., Quantum Dot Nanostructures // Materials Today. - 2002. - V. 48. –P. 140-142.

10. Kiviranta L., Kumpulainen S. Quality Control and Characterriation of BentoniteMateri-als // PosivaOY.– 2011. - P.102.

11. O.V.Egorova, Yu.A. Kadykova, S.E.Artemenko Directional regulation of the structure and properties of polyethylene filled with dispersed fillers.// Plasticheskie massy. - 2012. - Nr 4. - p. 57-59.(in Russian)

12. Tozhiev P.Zh., Normurodov B.A., Turaev Kh.Kh., Nurkulov F.N. *, Jalilov A.T.* Study of the physical and mechanical properties of highly filled polyethylene compositions // UNIVERSUM.- Chemical technology: electronic scientific journal. -2018.-Nr2 (47). - P. 62-65.(in Russian)

13. Mozzhukhin V. B. Influence of technological equipment and technology for obtaining highly filled compositions based on polyolefins on their physical and mechanical properties / V. B. Mozzhukhin et al. // Plastic masses. - 2013. - Nr 1. - p. 54–56.(in Russian)

14. B. A. Normurodov, P. Zh. Tozhiev, Kh. Kh. Turaev, and A. T. Dzhalilov, F. N. Nurkulov. Study of physical and mechanical properties of basalt-containing polyethylene compositions // Composite materials. -Tashkent -2017.-Nr 4.-P.10-12.(in Russian)

15. B. A. Normurodov, P. Zh. Tozhiev, Kh. Kh. Turaev, A. T. Jalilov Synthesis and IR spectroscopic study of a sulfur-containing oligomer // UNIVERSUM: Chemistry and biology: electronic scientific journal 2018 Nr2 (44). - P. 54-56. (in Russian)

16. Kryzhanovsky, V. K. Manufacture of products from polymeric materials, textbook // V. K. Kryzhanovsky et al. - St. Petersburg. : Profession, 2014. - 592 p.(in Russian)

17. Bredikhin P.A., Kadykova Yu.A. Study of the properties of PCMs filled with dispersed basalt // V International Student Electronic Scientific Conference "Student Scientific Forum".  - 2013. - p. 48-52. (in Russian)

Tocitethisarticle:G. T. Nuraliyev, P. J. Tojiev, X. X. Turaev, A. T. Djalilov. Studying the structure and properties of polypropylene filled with nitrogen-, phosphorus-, metal-containing oligomers // Uzbek chemical journal. -2022. – Nr2. - Pp.67-73. 

Received:12.02.2022; Accepted: 14.03.2022; Published: 14.04.2022


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UDK 543.432:542.61:546.59.86.683

S. M. Turаbdjаnоv, А. SH. Giyasоv, L. S. Rаkhimоvа, N. T. Rахmаtullаеvа


Tashkent State Technical University, Tashkent, E-mail:

Abstract. Background. Increasing requirements for environmental protection actualize sensitive and selective methods for determining microconcentrations of toxic impurities.

Purpose: development of extraction-photometric methods for the determination of gold (III), thallium (III) and antimony (V) with basic dyes directly in the organic phase.

Methodology. To increase the selectivity of the methods, the extraction of chloride complexes of gold, antimony, and thallium with organic solvents was used with the addition of methyl violet (MF), brilliant green (BG), and methylene blue (MG) to the extract.

Originality. The developed methods for the determination of gold, antimony and thallium with basic dyes differ from the existing ones in selectivity, sensitivity, simplicity and rapidity,

Findings. The optimal conditions for the selective extraction of gold (III), thallium (III), and antimony (V) with inert organic solvents and their complex formation with MF, BZ, and MG directly in the organic phase are found.

Key words: eco-toxicants, selectivity, dyes, sensitivity, complex formation, optical density, light absorption.


- extraction of Au (III), Tl (III), Sb (V) ions with inert organic solvents;

- complexation with MF, BZ and MG in the organic phase.

- increasing the selectivity and sensitivity of photometric methods for determining elements.


1. Zolotov Yu.A. Fundamentals of analytical chemistry. - M .: Publishing Center "Academy", 2012. - P. 416.(in Russian)

2. Torosyan V.F. Analytical chemistry and physico-chemical methods of analysis. - Tomsk: Publishing House of Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2010. - 195 p.(in Russian)

3. Eshmukhamedov M., Giyasov A., Gaibnazarov S. Selective extraction-photometric determination of Thallium, Bismuth and Gold by heterocyclic compounds. //LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing. chemical technology. 2018.09.19. P.422.(in Russian)

4. Karimova Kh.A., Guseynov I.K. Method for determining thallium in natural and industrial objects. A.S. 1272232 (USSR). - 11.03.84. - No. 37131994/23-26. – Published. B.I. - 1986. - No. 43.(in Russian)

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6. Rakhmatullaeva N.T., Turabdzhanov S.M., Giyasov A.Sh., Rakhimova L.S. Selective extraction extraction of antimony (V) and its photometric determination with 2-(2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (PAAF) directly in the organic phase.// Universum: Chemistry and Biology. DOI: 10.32743/UniChem.2021.82.4.31-38. Issue: 4(82). -April 2021.- Moscow.-P. 31-39.(in Russian)

7. Mironov I.V., Pritchina E.A., Beizel N.F., Polyakova E.V. Extraction - photometric determination of antimony // Optical methods of analysis.-Novosibirsk.-2013.-P. 43-51.(in Russian)

8. Turabdzhanov S.M., Rakhimova L.S., Beknazarova I.K., Giyasov A.Sh. // Modern eco-analytical extraction-photometric method for the determination of copper with 1-(2-pyridylazo) -2-naphthol (PAN). //Chemical technology.-Moscow.-2018.-T. 19.-No. 11. -P. 523-528.(in Russian)

9. Alekseev V.P. Quantitative analysis. -I.: Chemistry, 1972.-P.395.(in Russian)

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12. Zolotov Yu.A., Iofa B.Z., Chuchalin L.K. Extraction of metal halide complexes.- M.: Nauka, 1973.- P. 25, 59.(in Russian)

Tocitethisarticle:S. M. Turаbdjаnоv, А. SH. Giyasоv, L. S. Rаkhimоvа, N. T. Rахmаtullаеvа. Selective extraction extraction of gold (III), thallium (III), antimony (V) and their determination with basic dyes directly in the organic phase // Uzbek chemical journal. -2022. – Nr2. - Pp.74-85. 

Received:22.02.2022; Accepted: 22.03.2022; Published: 14.04.2022


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