Uzbek Chemical Journal





1B. Z. Esbergenova, 2O. T. Pardaev, 1Sh. Sh. Daminova,  1Z. Ch. Kadirova, 3S. B. Lyapin, 4X. T. Sharipov


1State Unitary Enterprise "Uzbek-Japanese Youth Center for Innovation", 2State University of Uzbekistan named after M. Ulugbek, 3Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 4State Unitary Enterprise "Fan va Tarakkiyot" at TSTU E-mail:

Abstract. Background. Rate of achieving equilibrium in the sorption process is the main property of any sorbent that has practical and theoretical significance. Based on kinetic data, it is possible to find the time required to establish equilibrium in the sorbent – salt solution system. Theoretical processing of experimental data using diffusion and chemical kinetics allows to conclude about the path of the sorption process, as well as, to determine the limiting stages, which can be used to solve some practical problems of sorption processes.

Purpose - to study the kinetic properties of sorption of copper (II) ions from aqueous solutions on impregnated sorbents, containing 2-amino-1-methylbenzimidazole, dithizone and benzohydroxamic acid.

Methodology.The kinetics of sorption of copper (II) ions was studied in a static mode. The pH values were monitored using an ionomer A-121. The concentration of copper (II) ions was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. To determine the parameter values of the used models, the minimization procedure was performed using the Origin Lab Pro mathematical package. X-ray diffraction patterns of sorbents were recorded on an XRD SMARTLAB diffractometer (Rigaku, Japan) with CuKα radiation.

Originality. The kinetics of sorption of Cu2+ ions by solid extractants based on MN202 (Purolite) impregnated with organic reagents was studied for the first time. The kinetic parameters of the chemical reaction on the surface of the impregnate are determined.

Findings. The mechanism of the kinetics of the Cu2+ions sorption by impregnated sorbents containing 2-amino-1-methylbenzimidazole, dithizone and benzohydroxamic acid is studied. The equilibrium of the Cu2+ions between the solution and sorbents is established within an hour after the start of sorption. Based on the processing of integral kinetic sorption curves, it was found that the sorption process proceeds in accordance with second-order models. The use of chemical kinetics models has shown that the stage of the chemical interaction of the Cu2+ ions with the functional groups of the sorbent also contributes to the overall rate of the process.

Keywords: sorption, copper, kinetics, solid extragent, impregnant, kinetic model of pseudo-first and pseudo-second order


* the kinetics of sorption of copper ions by impregnated S, N-groups was studied;

* the kinetic parameters of sorption are determined;

*i t was found that the rate of the sorption process obeys a second-order kinetic model.


1. Fontanals N., Marcé R.M., Borrull F. Porous polymer sorbents // Solid-Phase Extraction. - 2020. -P. 55-82.

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3. Tan L., Tan B. Hypercrosslinked porous polymer materials: design, synthesis, and applications // Chemical Society Reviews. - 2017. –V.46. –N.11. -P.3322-3356. 

4. Sharipov K.T., Daminova S.S., Kadirova Z.C., Esbergenova B.Z., Khaltursunov E., Hojamberdiev M. Maximizing the zinc ions removal by organic ligand-stabilized conjugate polysterene macronet material // Microchemical Journal - 2020. –V.153. -P.104523.

5. Daminova S.S., Kadirova Z.C., Sharipov K.T., Stoyko O.V., Chepulsky S.A., Adewuyi A., Hojamberdiev M. Diisopropyldithiophosphoric acid-impregnated macroporous non-ionogenic styrene-divinylbenzene polymeric sorbent (Porolas) for effective copper extraction // Journal of industrial and engineering chemistry. -2017. –V.55. - P.204-214.

6. Tewari P.K., Singh A.K. Amberlite XAD-7 impregnated with xy lenol orange: a chelating collector for preconcentration of Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Fe(III) ions prior to their determination by flame AAS // Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. -2000. –V.367. -N6. –P.562–567. DOI: 10.1007/s002160000395

7. Jain V.K., Mandalia H.C., Gupte H.S., Vyas D.J. Azo-calix[4]pyrrole Amberlite XAD-2: new polymeric chelating resins for the extraction, preconcentration and sequential separation of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) in natural water samples // Talanta. -2009. –V.79 (5). –P.1331–1340.  DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2009.05.047

8. Ivanov V.M., Antonova E.V., Uskova E.N. Sorption concentration of copper, lead and iron on carriers modified with 8-hydroxyquinoline and its derivatives // Moscow University Bulletin. Series 2: Chemistry. –2009. -Number 3. –S.169-181. (in Russian)

9. Mokhoeva O.B., Myasoedova G.V., Kubrakova I.V., Nikulin A.V., Artyushin O.I., Odinets I.L. New solid-phase extractants for the concentration of noble metals // Journal. analytical chemistry. -2010. -T.65. –No1. –P. 15-20 (in Russian)

10. Moon J.K., Han Y.J., Jung C.H., Lee E.H., Lee B.C. Adsorption of rhenium and rhodium in nitric acid solution by Amberlite XAD-4 impregnated with Aliquat 336 // Korean J. Chem. Eng. – 2006. – N.23. Issue 2. – P. 303-308.

11. Dremicheva E.S. Study of the kinetics of sorption on peat of iron (III) and copper (II) ions from wastewater // Vestn. Moscow un-that. ser. 2. Chemistry. -2017. -T. 58. -N4. -P. 204-207 (in Russian)

12. Neudachina L.K., Petrova Yu.S., Zasukhin A.S. et al. // Analytics and control. -2011. -T. 15. -No. 1. -P. 87-95. (in Russian)

13. Esbergenova B.Z., Daminova Sh.Sh., Kadirova Z.Ch., Lyapin S.B., Sharipov Kh.T. Sorption of copper (II) ions on the mn202 polymer sorbent and impregnated solid extractants // Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. In the press. (in Russian)

14. Esbergenova B.Z., Sharipov Kh.T., Koldarov A.R., Daminova Sh.Sh., Kadirova Z.Ch. Study of the influence of acidity of the medium on the sorption of copper (II) ions // International Uzbek-Belarusian Scientific and Technical Conference “Composite and metal-polymer materials for various industries and agriculture”, May 21-22, 2020 Tashkent. -P. 133-135 (in Russian)

15. Ho Y. S. Review of second-order models for adsorption systems // Journal of Hazardous Materials. -2006. – V.136. –P. 681-689.

16. Douven S., Paez C. A., Gommes C. J. The range of validity of sorp-tion kinetic models // Journal of Colloid and Interface science. -2015. –V.448. -P.437–450.

17. Daminova S. S., Kadirova Z. C., Sharipov K. T., Talipov S. A., Hojamberdiev M. Alkyl substituents of P, S, N-containing organic ligands influencing the uptake of Au3+ and Pt2+ ions over a hydrophobic hypercrosslinked polymeric sorbent // Polyhedron. - 2020. 114568.

18. Ho Y.S., Ng J.C.Y., McKay G. Kinetics of pollutant sorption by biosorbents // Separation and purification methods. -2000. –Vol.29. –N.2. -P.189-232.

19. Cheung W.H., Ng J.C.Y., McKay G. //J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. – 2003. – 78, N 5.–Р. 562 – 571

To cite this article: N. B. Z. Esbergenova, O. T. Pardaev, Sh. Sh. Daminova,  Z. Ch. Kadirova, S. B. Lyapin, X. T. Sharipov. Study of the sorption kinetics of copper (II) ions by solid extragents on the basis of polymer matrices// Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.3-10. 

Received: 18.07.2020; Accepted: 27.08.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


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1N. U. Abduraimova,  2,3Yu. N. Mansurov


1National Research Technological University "MISiS", Moscow, Russia, 2Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 3Tashkent State Transport University

Abstract. Background.lloys with memory form (AMF) based on titanium nickelide, combining high functional and mechanical properties, attract significant interest from their practical application. Structural changes and phase transformations are vital factors that determine the possibilities of using AMF. In this work, the effect of the size of the elements of the mixed structure of B2-austenite, consisting of nanosized granule and subgranuls of a polygonized substructure, on the functional properties of the Ti 50.7 at.% Ni alloy, preliminarily subjected to low-temperature thermomechanical processing (PLTP) and post-deformation annealing (PDA), is investigated.

The influence of the size of the structural elements of the Ti – 50.7 at.% Ni alloy subjected to low-temperature thermomechanical processing (PLTP) and post-deformation annealing (PDA) has been studied by the methods of electronic microscopic analysis, differential scanning calorimetry.

Purpose. This work aims to study the influence of the type of structure and alloys with memory form on the temperatures of martensitic transformations and memory effect form in the aging Ti – 50.7 at. % Ni alloy.

Methodology. During the research, a complex of modern methods for analyzing the structure and phase transformations was used. The influence of the size of the structural elements of the Ti – 50.7 at.% Ni alloy subjected to low-temperature thermomechanical treatment (LTMT) and post-deformation annealing (PDO) has been studied by the methods of electron microscopic analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Statistical methods were used to process the results.

Originality. The regularities of the influence of the size of the recrystallized B2 – austenite grain of the aging Ti – Ni alloy on the morphology, size and distribution of particles of the Ti3Ni4 phase formed during isothermal aging are established.

Findings. Isothermal annealing at a temperature of 430 °С for 1 – 10 hours after cold drawing with deformation e = 0.6 has a pronounced effect on the size of structural elements in the

Ti–50.7 at.% Ni alloy with a mixed austenite structure, consisting of nanosized subgrains of the polygonized substructure and grains nanocrystalline structure. It increases from 30 to 90 nm with increasing exposure time

Keywords: shape memory alloys, titanium nickelide, nanostructures, phase transformations.


* The established patterns of structure formation during thermomechanical processing and isothermal aging of hyperequiatomic Ti – Ni alloys, as well as varying the magnitude of induced deformation, allow precise control of the functional characteristics of workpieces and intelligent devices of specific shape memory elements in a wide range in accordance with the task.


1. V.E. Gunther et al. Shape memory effect and their application in medicine. / Ed. L.A. Monasevich. –Novosibirsk: Science, Russia, 1992. -741s. (in Russian)

2. V. Brailovski, S. D. Prokoshkin, P. Terriault et al. Shape memory alloy: Fundamentals, modeling and applications. Montreal: ETS Publ. (2003). -851 p.

3. E. Ryklina, K. Polyakova, S. Prokoshkin. Comparative study of the shape memory ef-fects in Ni-rich Ti – Ni alloy after training in various phase states.// Shap. Mem. Superelas-ticity. -2020. (in print) DOI: 10.1007 / s40830-020-00279-x

4. A.Yu. Kolobova, E.P. Ryklina, S.D. Prokoshkin, K.E. Inaekyan, V. Brailovsky. Investigation of the evolution of the structure and kinetics of martensitic transformations in titanium nickelide during isothermal annealing after hot helical rolling. // FMM 119. -2018. No. 2. -144-156.

5. N.N. Kuranova, D.V. Gunderov, A.N. Uksusnikov et al. Effect of heat treatment on structural and phase transformations and mechanical properties of TiNi alloy subjected to severe plastic deformation by torsion // FMM. -2009. -T. 108.-N 6. -P. 589-601.(in Russian)

6. K.A. Polyakova-Vachiyan, E.P. Ryklina, S.D. Prokoshkin, S.M. Dubinskii. Dependence of the Functional Characteristics of Thermomechanically Processed Titanium Nickelide on the Size of the Structural Elements of Austenite.// Phys. Met. Metallogr. -117. -2016. (8) 817-827. DOI: 10.1134 / S0031918X16080123

7. E. Prokofiev, J. Burow, E. Payton, R. Zarnetta, J. Frenzel, D. Gunderov, R. Valiev, G. Eggeler. Suppression of Ti3Ni4 Precipitation by grain size Refinement in Ni-Rich NiTi Shape Memory Alloys. // Advanced Engineering Materials. -2010. -V. 12. -No 8. -P. 747 - 753.

8. E.P. Ryklina, S. D. Prokoshkin, and A. A. Chernavina. Peculiarities of Implementation of Abnormally High Shape Memory Effects in Thermomechanically Treated Ti − Ni Alloys.// ISSN 2075-1133 / Inorg. Mater. Appl. 4 (4) (2013) 348−355.

9. Elena P. Ryklina, Kristina A. Polyakova, Natalya Yu. Tabachkova, et al. Microstructure Formation and Transformation Behavior in Titanium Nickelide with Various Grain Size of B2-Austenite.// Materials Research Proc. 9. -2018. -63-67.

10. E.P. Ryklina, K.A. Polyakova, N.Y. Tabachkova, et al. Effect of B2 austenite grain size and aging time on microstructure and transformation behavior of thermomechanically treated titanium nickelide. // Journal of Alloys and Compounds 764. -2018. -626-638.

To cite this article: N. U. Abduraimova,  Yu. N. Mansurov. Influence of the initial structure of aging titanium nickelide on the microstructure of TI3NI4 phase particles// Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.10-17. 

Received: 02.10.2020; Accepted: 14.10.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


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UDC 548.4:548.736.5:548.734.8

1A. Ruzmetov, 1Z. Baltayeva, 2A. Normamatov, 1I. Mengnorov, 1V. Sabirov, 1A. Ibragimov


1Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Mirzo Ulugbek str.,77-a, 100170, Uzbekistan 2National University of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, University str., 4, 100174, Uzbekistan

Abstract. Background.  Salicylic acid is of great importance as complexing ligand in coordination and analytical chemistry. It is also important in biology and medicine. Due to the fact that many of the important functions of salicylic acid occur through metal ion complexation. Salicylic acid (C7H6O3) is a phenolic phytohormone and is found in plants with roles in plant growth and development. In modern medicine, it is known an ointment, which consists of zinc oxide and salicylic acid. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory drug. Another important application of the salicylate ligand is in analytical chemistry. In this regard, the search and targeted synthesis of coordination compounds of metals with salicylic acid is an important  task.

The purpose of this work is to synthesize a complex of zinc with salicylic acid for use in the producing of new drugs and the single crystal X-ray study its crystals.

Methodology. Mononuclear complex bis(salycilato)-diaqua-zinc, [Zn(Sal)2(H2O)2] [I] (where Sal is salycilato anion with deprotonated carboxylate group) has been synthesized in the water solution by mixing of the zinc acetate and salicylic acid in molar relation Zn : HSal=1:2. The single crystals of the complex I have been prepared by slowly evaporation of the mother solution. Analysis of C, H and O were performed on a German Elementar Vario EL instrument. Data for the crystal structure determinations were collected on an Oxford Diffraction Xcalibur-R CCD diffractometer (CuKα-radiation, λ=1.54184 Å, ω-scan mode, graphite monochromator, at 293K). The structure were solved by a direct method of the SHELX-97 program package. All non-hydrogen atoms were refined anisotropically. Hydrogen atoms were inserted at calculated positions and constrained with isotropic thermal parameters. The molecular drawings were plotted by MERCURY program package7.

Originality. The complex of the zinc with salicylic acid was synthesized and the crystal structural of I was studied by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method.

Findings. The crystals is monoclinic, space group C2, with a=15.490(1), b=5.348(1), c=9.179(1) Å, β=93.53(1)°, V=758.9(1) Å3, dcalc= 1.64 g/cm3, Z=3. The factors R1[I>2s(I)] and wR2(all data) values are 0.0405 and 0.0414, respectively, for all 860 independent reflections. The crystal structure is built from mononuclear molecules of Zn [(Sal2)(H2O)2. The atom Zn is located at the symmetry axis 2 and has tetrahedral coordination polyhedra involving two O atoms of the two symmetrically relaited monodentate Sal-ligands and two water molecules. The carboxylate group coordination mode is the syn-1a monodentate type.

Key words: zinc complex, salicylic acid, the single crystal X-ray study, crystal structure, monodentate coordination


* the Zn atom is on the crystallographic axis of symmetry 2 and has the tetrahedral coordination by the O atoms of the two monodentate Sal anions and two water molecules,

* geometric parameters of the complex molecule have usual values,

* the relationship between the structure of the complex and its hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties was studied.


1. S. Hayat, A. Ahmad, ''Salicylic acid–a plant hormone'', London, 2007.

2. Dr. K. Praveen, DSS Madhavi, K. Anil Kumar, Y. Kranthi Kumar. Coordination Chemistry of Salicylic Acid.  International Journal of Engineering and Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 – 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 – 6726 ||Volume 5 Issue 9|| September 2016 || PP.08-10 8 | Page 08-10.

3. V. Zelenák, K. Györyová, D. Mlynarcik. // Antibacterial and antifungal activity of zinc (II) Carboxylates with/without N-donor Organic Ligands.   In Metal based drugs. 2002. V.8. No.5.

4. J. A. van der Horn, B. Souvignier, M. Lutz. Crystallization, Structure Determination and

5. Reticular Twinning in Iron(III) Salicylate: Fe[(HSal)(Sal)(H2O)2]. // Crystals. 2017, V.7, No 12; doi:10.3390/cryst7120377.

6. Porai-Koshitz М.А. The Crystallochemistry and Stereochemistry of carboxylates. In The crystallochemistry. Moscow, VINITI Press (in Russian)

7. CrysAlisPro. Ver., Oxford Diffraction, UK (2007).

8. G. M. Sheldrick, Acta Crystallogr., A46, 467-473 (1990).

9. G. M. Sheldrick, SHELXS97, SHELXL97, Programs for Crystal Structures Solution and Refinement, University of Gottingen, Gottingen, Germany (1997).

10. C. F. Macrae, I. J. Bruno, J. A. Chisholm, et al., J. Appl. Crystallogr., 41, 466-470 (2008). Palanisami, N.; Prabusankar, G.; Murugavel, R. A novel dimeric copper salicylate with an undissociated COOH group: Synthesis and crystal structure of [Cu2(HSal)(Sal)(2,20-bpy)2] (ClO4).// Inorg. Chem. Commun. 2006, 9, 1002–1006.

To cite this article:A. Ruzmetov, Z. Baltayeva, A. Normamatov, I. Mengnorov, V. Sabirov, A. Ibragimov. Crystal structure of the bis(salycilato)-diaqua-zinc (II)// Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.18-24. 

Received: 11.09.2020; Accepted: 10.10.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


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UDC541.49; 546.73.74.56

M. E. Jumaniyazova, T. A. Azizov, M. R. Ibragimova


1Urgench State University, Urgench, st. H. Olimjona, 14, e-mail:, 2Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent,

Abstract. Background. Complex compounds of metals with amides, possessing biological activity, are widely used in agriculture. Metals such as cobalt and nickel are trace elements involved in the vital processes of living organisms, formates have bactericidal and fungicidal properties.

Purpose. The synthesis and study of the structure of mixed amide complexes of cobalt and nickel formates with formamide and thiocarbamide.

Methodology. Differential thermal analysis, IR spectroscopy.

Originality. For the first time, mixed amide complex compounds of cobalt and nickel formates with formamide and thiocarbamide in an aqueous solution were synthesized. The composition of the compounds obtained and methods for coordinating ligands with a complexing agent and the thermal behavior of the complexes were studied.

Findings. Using the methods of IR spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis, the individuality of the synthesized compounds and methods of coordination of ligands are established.

Keywords: formats, thiocarbamide, formamide, mixed amide, coordination, absorbtion bands.


* synthesis of complex compounds of formate cobalt and nickel;

* the identity of the compounds obtained is established using DTA;

* ligand coordination has been proven by IR spectroscopy data.


1. Ibragimova M.R., Azizov T.A., Khasanov Sh.B. Synthesis and study of mixed carbamide coordination compounds of magnesium and calcium nicotinates // Chemical industry, vol. 92, no. 4, 2015. (in Russian)

2. Kholmatov D.S., Azizov T.A., Ibragimova M.R. Mixed amide coordination compounds of magnesium palmitates with acetamide, carbamide and thiocarbamide // Universum: Chemistry and biology: electron. scientific. zhurn. 2018. No. 8 (50). URL: (in Russian)

3. Khaidarov D.M. Mixed amide complex compounds of magnesium succinate // Universum: Chemistry and biology: electron. scientific. zhurn. 2018. No. 3 (45). URL:  (in Russian)

4. Nesterova E.Yu., Kositsina E.S., Tsyganyuk L.P., Vishnikin A.B. Coordination compounds of copper (II) and cobalt (II) salts with 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-pyridinecarboxylic acid hydrazide // Journal of Unorganic Chemistry, 2012, volume 57, no. 3, p. 401 - 408. (in Russian)

5. Albov D.V., Buravlev E.A., Savinkina E.V., Zamilatskov I.A. Synthesis and structure of the complex of zinc iodide with thiourea, [Zn (CH4N2S) 2I2] // Crystallography, 2013, Volume 58, No. 1, p. 76 - 78. (in Russian)

6. Egorov N.B., Eremin L.P., Larionov A.M., Usov V.F. Thermolysis of thiosulfato-thiourea complexes of lead // Inorganic materials, 2010, volume 46, no. 11, p. 1374 - 1380. (in Russian)

7. Egorov N.B., Eremin L.P., Usov V.F., Larionov A.M., Fiterer I.P. Investigation of thiosulfato-thiourea complexes of lead // Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2008, volume 53, no. 1, p. 123 - 128. (in Russian)

8. Alikberova L.Yu., Albov D.V., Antonenko T.A., Kochetova I.M., Rukk N.S. Synthesis and structure of complexes of neodymium and gadolinium iodides // Bulletin of MITHT, 2010, v.5, No. 3. P. 30 - 33. (in Russian)

9. Kadyrkulova S.O., Shaikieva N.T., Akhmatova Zh.T. IR absorption spectra of formamide complexes with erbium and yttrium formates // Vestnik VSU, series: Chemistry and biology. Pharmacy, 2017, No. 4. P. 14 - 17. (in Russian)

10. Sapalova S.A., Abdurasulova A.A., Namazova B.S., Baydinov T.B., Imanakunov B.I. Investigation of the interaction of magnesium chloride with formic acid amide // Izvestiya VUZov, No. 5, 2014. P. 75 - 77. (in Russian)

11. Tarasevich B.N. IR spectra of the main classes of organic compounds // Reference materials, Moscow 2012. Moscow State University. Lomonosov. (in Russian)

12. Paulik F., Paulik J., Erdey L. Derivatograph. I.Mittelung Ein automaticsh registriender Apparat zur gleichzeitigen Ausguchrund der Differential-thermogravimetrichen Untersuchungen // Z.Anal.Chem. -1958. –V.160. -№4. –р.241-250.

13. Syrovatsky I.P., Gonchikova Yu.A. Using the method of complexometry for the quantitative analysis of drugs // Textbook. Irkutsk, ISMU, 2017. P. 22 - 27. (in Russian)

14. Ivanov V.M., Rudometkina T.F. Application of sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate in chemical analysis // Methodological development. Moscow, Lomonosov Moscow State University. 2019.P. 29 - 40. (in Russian)

To cite this article: M. E. Jumaniyazova, T. A. Azizov, M. R. Ibragimova. Complex compounds of cobalt and nickel formates with formamide and thiocarbamide// Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.24-29. 

Received: 14.02.2020; Accepted: 15.08.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


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R. N. Kim, O. V. Myachina, L. E. Mamasalieva, T. A. Azizov, L. A. Sharipova


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent,E-mail:

Abstract. Background. Analysis of the current state of the using various growth stimulants makes it possible to note that, undoubtedly, growth regulators play and will play important role like mineral fertilizers and chemical plant protection products. In this regard, at present, with a decrease of arable land and an increase of world's population, the expansion of the range and scope of practical use of plant growth regulators on cotton plant is undoubtedly relevant.

The purpose of the presented studies: based on the laboratory and vegetation studies, experimentally substantiate and identify the most perspective biologically active compound.

Methodology. The study of new synthesized, mixed-ligand coordination compounds for germination of cotton seeds were carried out in a laboratory experiment, as well as for the growth, development and harvest of cotton plant in a vegetation experiment. The biological activity of the experimental samples were evaluated according to the most important indicators of the sowing qualities of seeds: germination energy (EP) and root length (DC). Agrotechnical measures were carried out according to the generally accepted methodology of the UzNIIH.

Originality. For the first time, an agrochemical assessment of new mixed-ligand coordination compounds is given

Findings. The laboratory screening studies made it possible to identify the best a complex compound in terms of germination of seeds. The compound ZnNit • K • ANK was selected by us for further carrying out vegetative agrochemical studies. Based on the totality of the performed indicators, it can be argued that the tested preparation ZnNit • K • ANK is a plant growth stimulator.

Key words: complex compound, stimulating effect, germination, agrochemical research


* screening of new mixed-ligand coordination compounds was carried out;

* it was found that the tested preparation ZnNit • K • ANK causes not only the maximum stimulating effect, but also has a faster start of the development of the root system.


1. Vakulenko V.V., Shapoval O.A. New regulators of growth in agricultural production. On Sat. Scientific support and improvement of the methodology of agrochemical service of agriculture in Russia. - M., 2000. -P. 71-89. (in Russian)


3. OA Shapoval, I.P. Mozharova, A.A. Korshunov. email: /article/n/ regulyatory-rosta-rasteniy-v-agrotehnologiyah  - 2012

4. Application of physiologically active substances in agricultural technologies / V.V. Kotlyarov, Yu.P. Fedulov, K.A. Dotsenko, D.V. Kotlyarov, E.K. Yablonskaya.- Krasnodar: KubGAU, 2014.-169 p. (in Russian)

5. Shapoval O.A. The influence of new generation plant growth regulators on the growth and productivity of soybean plants / O.A. Shapoval, I.P. Mozharova M.T. Mukhina // Fertility. -2015.-N 5.-P.32-34, 148 (in Russian)

6. Kolesnikov S.I., Kazeev K.Sh., Valkov V.F. Ecological state and functions of soils in conditions of chemical pollution. -Rostov on Don: Rostizdat, 2006. -385p. (in Russian)

7. Azizov T.A. Amidocarboxylate coordination compounds of a number of metals. // Uzb.chem.log. -2003. -№1. -P.23-28. (in Russian)

8. Usmanov B.Kh., Sharipov Kh.T., Azizov T.A., Meldebekova S.U. Compounds of a number of metals with amidocarboxylates. // Bulletin of the Osh state government. university. Ser. 5. – Issue 2. -2003. -P.78-81. (in Russian)

9. "Methods of agrochemical analyzes of soils and plants in Central Asia." -Tashkent: Soyuz-NIHI, 1977.-176 p. SoyuzNIHI, 1981.-368 p. (in Russian)

10. GOST 12038-84. Agricultural seeds. Methods for determining germination. (in Russian)

11. Vityazev V.G., Samsonova V.P., Makarov I.B., Kondrashkina M.I. Workshop on General Agriculture. -M., 2005 .-- 130 p. (in Russian)

12. 12 Workshop on agrochemistry: Textbook. allowance. 2nd ed., Rev. and additional / Ed. Mineeva V.G. M .: Publishing house of Moscow State University, 2001. -P.320-322. (in Russian)

13. Lisovitskaya O.V., Terekhova V.A. Phytotesting: basic approaches, problems of the laboratory method and modern solutions // Dokl. on ecol. Soil Science.-2010.-Issue 13.-N1.-P.1-18. (in Russian)

14. Bezuglova O.S. New reference book on fertilizers and growth stimulants / Series "Reference books". –Rostov-on-Don: Phoenix, 2003.-384p. (in Russian)

To cite this article: R. N. Kim, O. V. Myachina, L. E. Mamasalieva, T. A. Azizov, L. A. Sharipova. Biological activity of new mixed ligand coordination compounds // Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.29-36. 

Received: 11.09.2020; Accepted: 10.10.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


* * *

UDC 631.811.98

М. M. Yakubov, D. B. Kholikulov, O. N. Boltaev, N. M. Yakubov, O. N. Usmankulov, S. A. Shamatov


State Unitary Enterprise "Fan va Tarakkiyot"Tashkent State Technical University named after I. Karimov, Almalyk branch of Tashkent State Technical University named after I. Karimova, JSC "Almalyk MMC".

Abstract. Background. Uzbekistan has no nickel deposits and nickel production. However, its consumption, due to imports, reaches 7 thousand tons per year for the production of nickel alloys and electroplating. Some wastes and solutions of copper production of JSC Almalyk MMC contain nickel, so its extraction from them will improve the technical and economic indicators of the enterprise.

Purpose: development of scientific foundations of an effective technology for selective extraction of nickel from mother liquors for the production of copper sulphate at JSC "Almalyk MMC".

Methodology. Theoretical studies and generalizations, experiments based on methods of potentiometry, photocolorimetry, atomic absorption, FTIR spectrometry, X-ray phase and particle size analysis, technological testing, large-scale laboratory technological research, semi-industrial and pilot industrial tests were used.

Originality. The efficiency of the deposition of metal ions from metal-containing technological solutions is established, the influence of various technological parameters on the optimal mode of selective deposition of heavy non-ferrous metal ions from metal-containing solutions of copper production is revealed.

Findings. It is shown that the addition of milk of lime to the technological solutions of JSC "Almalyk MMC", at pH 6.0-6.5, the precipitation of nickel is 4.79-6.87%, and copper 98.67-99.11%. Copper precipitates as hydroxide as much as possible, while nickel (93%) remains in solution. It is processed by methods of extraction, sorption, ion flotation, etc., and nickel vitriol is obtained from it.

Key words: nickel, vitriol, precipitation, ion, metal-containing, copper, separation, mixtures, settling, extract.


* a technological solution has been developed as a basis for innovation;

* processing of mother liquors for the production of copper sulfate.


1. Information and technical guide to the best available technologies (ITS 12-2016). Nickel and cobalt production. M: Bureau of BAT 2016- p. 194. (in Russian)

2. P.N. Devyatkin. Separation of nickel and copper in solutions. Vestnik MGTU, volume 10, No. 4, 2007(in Russian)

3. A.Yu. Siderenko, G.G. Mikhailov, G.P. Zhivotovskaya. Obtaining nickel sulfate from spent electrolytes of the copper industry. Bulletin of YURTU, No. 10, 2006(in Russian)

4. A.V. Valkov. Method for extracting copper from an aqueous solution // RF Patent No. 2366737. Publ. 10.09.2009. (in Russian)

5. D.Yu. Voronin, V.V. Panin, L.N. Krylov. Method for extracting copper from sulfuric acid solutions. // RF Patent No. 2339713. Publ. 11/27/2008. (in Russian)

6. V.Yu. Gusev, A.V. Radushev, D.A. Muksinova, V.N. Vaulina. Extraction of copper (II) by N ', N'-dialkylhydrazides of para-tert-butylbenzoic acid // Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 2012, volume 57, no. 5, p. 806-811. (in Russian)

7.J.Peacey, E.Robles // Trans. Nonferrous Metals Soc.China. 2004. V. 14. № 3. Р. 560. 

8. V.Yu. Gusev, A.V. Radushev, T.A. Verkholantseva, T.D. Batueva // Zh. app. chemistry. 2009. T. 82. No. 1. p. 29. (in Russian)

9. G.M.Ritcey // Tsinghua Sci. Technol. 2006. V. 11. N2.Р. 142.

10. Kholikulov D.B., Yakubov M.M., Masidikov E.M., Ekubov O.M. Investigation of the dependence of the extraction of metal ions during ion flotation on the pH of the solution // Composite materials, Tashkent, 2018, No. 1, -P. 6-8. (in Russian)

11. Kholikulov D.B., Normurotov R.I., Akhtamov F.E. Research on the extraction of non-ferrous metals by ion flotation from waste solutions // Gorny Vestnik of Uzbekistan, - Navoi, 2016, -N 2 (65), p. 68-70. (in Russian)

12. Kholiqulov D.B., Yakubov M.M., Boltayev O.N. Research of the valuable components` extraction possibility from technological solutions copper production by method of ionic flotation // International Journal of Advanced Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, – India, 2019, -Vol. 6, Issue 6, June, -Pp. 9565-9570.

13. A.E. Sokolovsky, E.V. Radion. Analytical chemistry. Reference materials: Study guide for the disciplines "Analytical chemistry" and "Analytical chemistry and physical and chemical methods of analysis" for students of chemical engineering specialties. comp. - Mn. : BSTU, 2005.80 p. (in Russian)

14. M.N. Chubenko. Development of technologies for industrial wastewater treatment with the utilization of copper and zinc compounds: Author's abstract. dis ... cand. tech. Sciences: 05.17.01; Ivan. state chemical-technol. un-t. - 2004 .-- 18 p. (in Russian)

15. E.V. Ganebnykh. Wastewater purification from nickel ions using montmorillonite hydrosols // Public health and environment. - 2010. - No. 1. - P. 43-46. (in Russian)

16. I.M. Fominykh. Sorption treatment of wastewater from heavy metals with materials based on siliceous rocks: abstract dis ... cand. tech. Sciences: 05.23.04 / USTU-UPI. - 2006 .-- 16 p. (in Russian)

17. V.A. Kozhemyakin, A.N. Pochtarev. Electrocoagulation treatment of waste water in the production of semiconductor materials // Vodoochistka. Water treatment. Water supply. - 2012. - v. 49. - No. 1. - P. 28-31. (in Russian)

18. N.L. Medyanik, H. Ya. Girevaya, O.V. Munteanu, Wastewater treatment from heavy metal ions by ion flotation / 4th International Scientific School of Young Scientists and Specialists. Problems of subsoil development in the XXI century through the eyes of young scientists. - Moscow, 2007 .-P. 292-294. (in Russian)

To cite this article: М. M. Yakubov, D. B. Kholikulov, O. N. Boltaev, N. M. Yakubov, O. N. Usmankulov, S. A. Shamatov. Processing of technological solutions formed during the production of copper cup in the conditions of Almalyk MMC // Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.36-44.

Received: 09.07.2020; Accepted: 20.08.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


* * *

UDC 66.097.3(088.8)

S. B. Lyapin, M. A. Ibragimova, V. P. Guro, A. R. Zhumanazarov


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, e-mail:

Abstract. Background. In the production of acetaldehyde, Navoiazot JSC uses the "Cadmium-calcium-phosphate catalyst CCP-N" TU 113-03-00209510-108-2006 - raw material for cadmium recycling. A technology for processing spent catalyst CCP-N for cadmium has been developed. In the case of obtaining pure cadmium, it is necessary to eliminate impurities in the product: Fe3+ and phosphate ions, which is achieved by ion exchange.

Purpose: extraction of pure cadmium in the process of processing spent cadmium-calcium-phosphate catalyst (CCP-N).

Methodology. The process solution of cadmium sulfate was purified from impurities using a Purolite C-100 sorbent in the H+ form. The cadmium concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS).

Originality. A scheme has been developed for the purification of technological solutions for processing spent catalyst CCP-N from impurities of phosphate ions and iron (III) ions using ion exchange.

Findings. The proposed method for purifying a process solution of cadmium sulfate during the processing of spent CCP catalyst from phosphate ions and Fe3+ ions was confirmed by monitoring Cd, P, Fe in process solutions before and after sorption of cadmium.

Key words: cadmium, catalyst, ion exchange, cation exchanger, sorption, desorption, atomic absorption spectroscopy, eluate.


* extraction of pure cadmium from the spent Cd catalyst;

* the purity of the product is confirmed by AAS analyzes;

* impurities polluting cadmium are: phosphate ions and Fe3+ ions


1 Gorin Yu.A. Goskhimgidrat, TK (1959). - P. 8 (194) - 14 (200); T2 (1959). - P. 85 (177) - 88 (180). (in Russian)

2 Catalyst technology. 2nd edition. Ed. I.P. Mukhlenova.- L .: Chemistry. - 1979. -327 (in Russian)

3. V.P. Guro, M.A. Ibragimova, E.T. Safarov, F.N. Fuzailova, A.T. Dadahodzhaev. Technology of cadmium extraction from spent cadmium-calcium-phosphate catalyst // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. -No 1. -P. 39-43. (in Russian)

4. V.P. Guro, M.A. Ibragimova, A.T. Dadahodzhaev, E.T. Safarov, F.N. Fuzailova. Recycling of spent cadmium-calcium-phosphate catalyst // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. -N3. -P. 8-14. (in Russian)

5. Patent USSR No. 1068416, Method for producing acetaldehyde. Reg. 01.13.82, issued 01.23.84 (bulletin No. 3). (in Russian)

6. Patent USSR No. 166653. 12.1V.I963 (No. 830767 / 23-26) filed with the application attached. Priority: Published on 01.XI 1.1964. Bulletin No. 23 Date of publication of the description 11.1.1965. I. I. Kukushkin, B. I. Kruglov and L. S. Pakhomova. A method of obtaining a cadmium-calcium-phosphate catalyst. (in Russian)

7. Wasserman N.M., Chemical precipitation from solutions. Leningrad "Chemistry" (1980). - P. 32, 59, 128,155. (in Russian)

8. Pozin M.E. Mineral soda technology. L .: "Chemistry", (1970). - P. 982, 1318, 1344, 1366. (in Russian)

9. I. Khavezov, D. Tsalev. Atomic absorption analysis. L .; "Chemistry". 1983.S. 91. (in Russian)

10. S. B. Lyapin, M.A. Ibragimova, V.P. Guro, A.R. Zhumanazarov. Determination of cadmium in technological solutions for processing spent catalyst CCP // Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. –No 1. -P. 83-88. (in Russian)

11. S. B. Lyapin, P. Yu. Shtyrlov, V.Sh. Khaspoladov, G.U. Rakhmatkariev. Purification of ammonium perrhenate from impurities of alkali metals and other related elements by the method of ion exchange // Uzbek chemical journal. -2011. –No 6. –P. 36-39. (in Russian)

To cite this article: S. B. Lyapin, M. A. Ibragimova, V. P. Guro, A. R. Zhumanazarov. Purification of technological solutions for processing waste CCP catalyst from phosphate ion impurities by ion exchange // Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.44-48.

Received: 09.09.2020; Accepted: 10.10.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


* * *

UDC 621.357(083)

F. N. Fuzaylova, V. P. Guro, A.T. Dadahodzhaev, M. A. Ibragimova


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, e-mail:

Abstract. Background. In Uzbekistan, phosphating solutions-concentrates intended for phosphating of carbon steel surfaces are imported, for example, from Russia: Foscon 35, which operates in the autocatalytic mode of phosphating, and Foscon 35M. Work has been carried out to develop their analogs from local raw materials. A comparative assessment was needed.

Purpose. Comparative assessment of the protective properties of phosphate coatings formed on carbon steel from chemical phosphating solutions.

Methodology. Gravimetric control of the corrosion rate of steel samples St. 10 is carried out in accordance with GOST 28084-89; measurement of the polarization resistance Rn - on the polarization resistance indicator: bridge Р-5126. Phosphating solutions based on Foscon 35 and FK-1 concentrates were used.

Originality. For the first time, on samples of carbon steel, during comparative tests of the protective properties of zinc-nitrate-phosphate coatings based on concentrates: local FK-1 and imported analogue Foscon 35, some functional advantages of the local product were established. The possibility of import substitution and localization of production is shown.

Findings. The corrosion rate and polarization resistance of the surface of steel samples with protective phosphate coatings were measured. The tests were carried out in time, from 0 to 15 minutes, in the temperature range of 20-75 ° C, with the ratio of the sample area to the solution volume in the range of 0.5-3.0 dm2 /dm3.

Key words: chemical phosphating, surface protection, carbon steel, corrosion, holding time.


* corrosion rate and surface polarization resistance;

* samples with phosphate coating based on Foscon 35 and FK-1 mixtures;

* comparative tests have shown the advantage of the local analogue.


1. Azhogin F.F., Belenky M.A. and others. Electroplating. Directory. -M .: Metallurgy, 1987 .-- 736 p. (in Russian)

2. Patent RU No. 2 354 747. Method of obtaining phosphate coating / MN Bonokina. (RU), Chumaevsky V.A. (RU), Zhuravleva S.L. (RU), Maslova V.I. (RU) and others. Patent area: FK CJSC (RU); Application: 2007127364/02, 17.07.2007; Patent date: 17.07.2007; Published: 10.05.2009. Bul. No. 13. (in Russian)

3. Patent RU No. 2 624 566. Method of phosphating of soft magnetic alloys like permalloy (options) / Selivanov V.N. (RU), Nikolotov A.D. (RU), Sergunov A.A. (RU); Patent: FGUP FNPC "PO" Start "named after MV Protsenko". -2016105087; Application: 02/15/2016; Published: 04.07.2017. Bul. No. 19. (in Russian)

4. Phosphating concentrates Foscon-35, Foscon-35K. Technical conditions. TU 2149-205-10964029-2004, rev. 1, 2, 3. (in Russian)

5. Patent RU No. 2380458. Method of obtaining zinc nitrate phosphate concentrate / Yagubova V.L., Miroshnichenko Yu.S., Chumaevsky V.A. Patent: ZAO 'FC' (RU). 2008122869/15; application: 06.06.2008; Published: 27.01.2010. Bul. No. 3. (in Russian)

6.F.N. Fuzailova, V.P. Guro, A.T. Dadakhodzhaev, M.A. Ibragimova. Electrolyte of chemical phosphating of carbon steel surface based on local raw materials // Uzbek chemical journal. -2018. -N6. -P.27-31. (in Russian)

7. F.N. Fuzailova, V.P. Guro, A.T. Dadahodzhaev. The quality of coatings on ferrous metals from import-substituting chemical phosphating solutions // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. -No. 3. -P.27-31. (in Russian)

8. Akaeva T.K., Rodin O.N., Akaev O.P. and other Phosphating of steel products with compositions based on phosphoric acid // Bulletin of the Kostroma State University. ON. Nekrasov. -2013. -N4.-P.8-12. (in Russian)

9. Akaeva T.K., Rodin O.N., Gunin V.V. and others. Optimization of phosphating regimes with compositions based on phosphoric acid // Bulletin of KSU im. N.A. Nekrasov. -2014.- No. 5. -P.39-41. (in Russian)

10. Mansfeld F. Determination of the corrosion current by the method of polarization resistance // Advances in the science of corrosion and technology of protection against it. -M. Fontana, R. Stale, Ed., Vol. 6. -M .: Metallurgy, 1980. -P. 180-265. (in Russian)

11. Antropov LI, Gerasimenko MA, Gerasimenko Yu. S. Determination of the rate of corrosion and the effectiveness of inhibitors by the method of polarization resistance // Protection of metals. -1986. -T. 2. -No. 2.-P.765-771. (in Russian)

12. Astrelin I.M., Gerasimenko Y.S., Belousova N.A., Kosogina I.V. Comparative characteristics of water corrosiveness // NTUU, Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, ISSN 2306-4412 / ISSN2306-4455. Visnik of the Cherkasy sovereign technological university. -2019. -N4. -P.71-78. 2019 DOI: 10.24025 / 2306-4412.4.2019.182234. (in Russian)

To cite this article: F. N. Fuzaylova, V. P. Guro, A.T. Dadahodzhaev, M. A. Ibragimova. Estimation of protective properties of coatings of carbon steel from solutions of chemical phosphating // Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.48-52.

Received: 26.05.2020; Accepted: 27.07.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


* * *

UDC 631.875

А. L. Giyasidinov, B. E. Sultonov, SH. S. Namazov, U. K. Alimov


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

Abstract. Background. Currently, with the decrease in arable land and population growth in the world, the food problem has worsened. Therein, one of the priority tasks of the food and agricultural industry is to provide the population with food. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the assortment and production volume of single phosphoric fertilizers, such as simple and enriched superphosphates, etc. Therefore, lately much attention has been paid to the production of single mineral fertilizers that is the main factor in growing high and high-quality crops.

Purpose. Obtaining a single fertilizer based on phosphorite powdered (PP) and nitric acid, to study the influence of basic technological parameters on the quality parameters of single fertilizers.

Methodology. For laboratory experiments, PP was used, having the following composition (wt.,%): 17.76 - P2O5, 47.51 - CaO; 13.93 — CO2, 3.27 — SO3; 5.27 – insoluble residue; CaO: P2O5 = 2.68. To leach calcium nitrate from the precipitate, a single wash with hot (90 °C) water was used at a ratio of PF: H2O = 1: 2.0.

Originality. The chemical composition of slurries obtained by the decomposition of phosphorite flour with nitric acid was studied for the first time; The influence of the rate and concentration of nitric acid on the compositions of the slurries and the single fertilizers obtained was studied.

Findings. The optimal parameters for obtaining single phosphorus-containing fertilizers were determined: rate of HNO3 –110%, concentration 50.0-58.78%, weight ratio PP: Н2О = 1: 2.0. Samples of single fertilizers obtained in this case have the following composition (mas.%): P2O5total. = 26.22 - 26.44; P2O5acceptable = 15.07 - 15.09; CaOtotal. = 45.60 - 45.85; CaO acceptable = 26.45 - 27.05; CaOwater soluble. = 4.26 - 4.51; N = 1.78-1.85.

Key words: phosphorite powdered, nitric acid, calcium nitrate, precipitate suspension.


* elimination of excessive foaming during the decomposition of calcareous phosphorites;

* direct production of single phosphoric fertilizers with a minimum content of calcium nitrate.


1. Lawendy Talaat A.B., Young Peter A. Anionic flotation of Hazard phosphate     ores // TIZ-Fachber. –Pakistan. -1984. -108. -No 9. -Рр. 568-573.

2. Tariq F. Al-Fariss, Farag A. Abd El-Aleem, Khaled A. El-Nagdy. Beneficiation of Saudi phosphate ores by column flotation technology // Journal of King Saud University – Engineering Sciences. -2013. –No 25. -Рр.113–117.

3. Lim H.H., Gilkes R.J. Beneficiation of apatite rock phosphates by calcination: Effects on chemical properties and fertilizer effectiveness //Australian journal of soil research. –Australia. -2001. -Vol.39. –N 2. -Рр.397-402.

4. Patent of USA. Method of treatment of the phosphate rocks / Wengeler Wilhelm, Volstein Friedrich, Hoffmann Egbert. Class. 423/167, С 01, 25/01.-No 181703. -01.01.80.

5. Dekhkanov ZK, Ibragimov I.G., Namazov Sh.S., Seitnazarov A.R., Sadykov B.B., Zakirov B.S. Obtaining extraction phosphoric acid from a chemically enriched phosphoconcentrate of phosphorites of the Central Kyzyl Kum // Uzbek chemical journal. -2011. -No 3. -Pp. 51-55. (in Russian)

6. Dekhkanov ZK, Sultonov BE, Namazov Sh.S., Zakirov BS. Complex-mixed fertilizers based on phosphoconcentrate of phosphorites of the Central Kyzyl Kum and potassium chloride // Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Scientific and technical journal. - 2012. - No. 3. –Pp. 8-11. (in Russian)

7. Namazov Sh.S., Reimov A.M., Mirzakulov H.Ch., Yakubov R.Ya., Beglov B.M. Obtaining nitrocalcium phosphate and nitrocalcium sulfophosphate fertilizers from ordinary phosphate rock of the Central Kyzyl Kum on a model laboratory acid plant // Chemical Industry. - St. Petersburg, 2004. - T. 81, No. 12. - P. 604-610. (in Russian)

8. Radjabov R.R. Pilot plant for producing nitrocalcium phosphate fertilizer // Chemical technology. Control and management. - Tashkent. -2006. - No 3. – P. 5-11. (in Russian)

9. Radjabov R.R. Evaporation of nitrocalcium phosphate pulp // Chemical technology. Control and management. -Tashkent. -2006. -No4. –Pp. 9-12. (in Russian)

10. Radjabov R.R. Scheme of utilization of low-grade heat in the production of nitrophosphate fertilizer // Chemical technology. Control and management. - Tashkent. -2008. - No. 1. - S. 15-20. (in Russian)

11. Shamuratova M.R., Sultonov B.E., Namazov Sh.S., Kaimakova D.A. Obtaining a precipitate based on washed roasted concentrate // Universum: technical sciences. -Moscow. -2017. -Pp. 30-36. (in Russian)

12. Shamuratova M.R., Sultonov B.E., Namazov Sh.S. The influence of some technological parameters on the process of precipitinogen the hydrochloric acid extraction of phosphates. // Chemical Science International Journal. -2018. -Pp. 2-7. (in Russian)

13. Shamuratova M.R., Sultonov B.E., Namazov Sh.S., Radjabov R.R. Influence of the quantity and temperature of washing water on the quality of precipitates obtained on the basis of mineralized mass and hydrochloric acid. // Uzbek scientific-technical and production journal. No1 / 2019.  P. 76-79. (in Russian)

14. Shamuratova M.R., Sultonov B.E., Namazov Sh.S. Study of rheological properties of acidic and neutralized hydrochloric-phosphoric acid suspensions and pulps obtained on the basis of phosphorites of the Central Kyzyl Kum. // Bulletin of the National Uzbek University. 2018. P. 542-546.

15. Shamuratova M.R., Sultonov B.E., Namazov Sh.S. Hydrochloric acid obtaining of precipitate on base of phosphorite flour from Kyzylkum phosphorites. // International journal of Resent Advancement in Engineering and Research. Volume 4, Issue 2. February 2018. Pp 8-13. (in Russian)

16. Shamuratova M.R., Namazov Sh.S., Reimov A.M., Sultonov B.E. Physicochemical and commercial properties of precipitates obtained on the basis of hydrochloric acid processing of the mineralized mass of phosphorites of the Central Kyzyl Kum. // Monthly scientific and practical journal Approbation, Makhachkala, Russia, 2017.3 (54), pp. 33-37 (in Russian)

17. Methods of analysis of phosphate raw materials, phosphoric and complex fertilizers, forage phosphates / MM Vinnik, LN Erbanova, PM Korolev. Zaitsev et al. - M .: Chemistry, 1975.218 p. (in Russian)

To cite this article: А. L. Giyasidinov, B. E. Sultonov, SH. S. Namazov, U. K. Alimov. Single fertilizers based on phosphorite powdered from central Kyzykumi Phosphorites and nitric acid // Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.53-59.

Received: 09.09.2020; Accepted: 10.10.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


* * *

UDC 544.72

D. A. Khadzhibaev


Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

Abstract. Background. As you know, reagent methods for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater lead to the formation of difficult to dispose of sludge. When solving these problems, the use of natural sorbent minerals prevents the formation of additional sludge and is economically profitable as well as environmentally sound. Purification of wastewater from ions of iron, manganese, copper and cadmium, using natural minerals, gives good results, and to increase the efficiency of the process, enrichment and activation of natural sorbent minerals will be required.

Purpose is the enrichment and activation of natural glauconite mineral for purification and softening of wastewater containing some heavy metal ions by the sorption method.

Methodology. Glauconite of the Parkent deposit was used as an object of research, which were enriched and modified. For enrichment, gravity methods and magnetic separation were used. During the experiments, model solutions containing ions of some heavy metals were also used.

Originality. An increase in the sorption capacity by 1.7-2.0 times of a glauconite sample processed for 2 hours in 20% HCl and then for 1 hour in an 8% NaCl solution was determined.

Findings. As a result of the research, a method for modifying Parkentglauconite has been developed. The technological conditions for enrichment and granulation of glauconite mineral without additional binders have been determined. A method of thermal activation and sequential chemical treatment in the acid-salt sequence have been developed, and the optimal concentrations of the components have been determined

Key words: natural minerals, glauconite, enrichment, modification, sorbent, waste water, heavy metal ions.


* a method for modifying Parkent glauconite has been developed;

* an increase in the sorption activity of glauconite during their chemical modification was determined.


1.S.B. Wenig, R.K. Chernova, V.G. Sergeant, V.P. Splyukhin, M.A. Perespelova, E.I. Selifonova, G.N. Naumova, A.M. Zakharevich, A.A. Selifonov, I.O. Kozhevnikov, N.N. Shcherbakova / Determination of the sorption characteristics of glauconite during the extraction of a pharmaceutical preparation from aqueous media // VESTN. ISKCON. UN-TA. CEP. 2. CHEMISTRY. 2017.Vol. 58.No. 5.P. 260-266. (in Russian)


3. Kormosh, E. V. Chemical and mineralogical aspects of the possibility of using clays of the Belgorod region in the development of sorbents for wastewater treatment / E. V. Kormosh, T. M. Alyabyeva, A. G. Pogorelova // Fundamental research. - 2011. - No. 8-1. - S. 131-136. (in Russian)

4. Lu Thi Yen. The Change in cation exchange complex and sorption capacity of natural sorbent in acid and alkaline activation / Lu Thi Yen, V.Yu. Khokhlov, L.I. Bel’chinskaya// Modem Problems of Adsorption dedicated to the Anniversary of Academican M.M. Dubinin: book of abstr. - М.,2011. - P. 227.

5. Tarasevich, Yu. I., Adsorption on clay minerals / Yu. I. Tarasevich, FD Ovcharenko; Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1975.-350 p. (in Russian)

6. Tarasevich, Yu. I. Structure and surface chemistry of layered silicates / Yu. I. Tarasevich; Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1988 .-- 248 p. (in Russian)

7. Belchinskaya, L. I. Study of structural and adsorption characteristics during activation and modification of natural silicates / L. I. Belchinskaya, K. A. Kozlov, A. V. Bondarenko, G. A. Petukhova, M. L. Gubkina / / Sorption and chromatogr. processes. - 2007. - T. 7. - Issue 4. - P. 571-576. (in Russian)

8. Sinegibskaya, A. D. Adsorption-coagulation method of wastewater treatment using clays from Torshkovskoye and Krasny Bor deposits/ Sinegibskaya AD, Kosmachevskaya NP, Donskaya TA // Proceedings of the Bratsk State University. Series: Natural and Engineering Sciences. - 2007. - No. 1. - P. 24-26.(in Russian)

9. Guskov, V. Yu. Application of supramolecular networks of 6-methyluracil as a new method for modifying the surface of a porous polymer / V. Yu. Guskov, R. A. Khabibullina, F. Kh. Kudasheva, S. P. Ivanov // Sorption and chromatographic processes. - 2011. - T. 11. - No. 3. - P. 415-421. (in Russian)

10. Kozlov, KA Adsorption technology for biochemical wastewater treatment of coke-chemical production: Author. dis. ... Cand. tech. Sciences: 03.00.16 / Kozlov Konstantin Aleksandrovich. - Ivanovo, 2007 .- 18 p. (in Russian)

11. Sineltsev, A.A. Effective adsorbent based on natural glauconites in water purification from heavy metals / А.А. Sineltsev, T.I. Gubina, I.A. Antonova, V.G. Sergeant // Chemical Physics. - 2012. - T. 31, N10. - P. 1-4. (in Russian)

12. Sineltsev A.A. Microwave heat treatment of complex granular sorbents based on natural glauconite / A.A. Sineltsev, S.B. Venig, Yu.A. Kalinin, V.S. Rybkov, V.G. Serzhantov, A.V. Starodubov, A.M. Zakharevich // Physics and Chemistry of Material Processing. - 2012. - N6. - P. 88-93. (in Russian)

13. Sineltsev A.A. Adsorption of heavy metal cations by granulated glauconite sorbents / A.A. Sineltsev, T.I. Gubina // Bulletin of the Saratov University. New series. Chemistry series. Biology. Ecology. -2016. -T.16. - Issue 3. -P.21-25.1. (in Russian)

To cite this article: D. A. Khadzhibaev. Enrichment of glauconite used in purification of waste water from heavy metal ions// Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.60-67.

Received: 17.08.2020; Accepted: 10.09.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


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J. A. Khabibullaev,  Sh. A. Shomurotov, O. R. Akhmedov, A. S. Turaev


Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan, Tashkent, M. Ulugbek, 83.e-mail:

Abstract. Background.  One of the products of high practical value of cellulose is oxycellulose, i.e. monocarboxylcellulose, which is widely used in medicine as a hemostatic coating that stops bleeding and as a means of preventing tissue adhesion in surgical practice. Although oxycellulose is of great importance in medicine, its obtaining process requires special conditions. Because the physicochemical properties of oxycellulose largely depend on the conditions of extraction. Therefore, the development of new methods of oxycellulose synthesis, determination of optimal reaction conditions is important.

Purpose. Study of the effects of the oxidation reaction of cellulose using a mixture of HNO3/H3PO4-NaNO2.

Methodology. The oxidation reaction of cellulose with a mixture of HNO3/H3PO4-NaNO2was studied at different ratios and time durations of the starting reagents.

Originality. The features of the oxidation reaction of cellulose using a mixture of HNO3/H3PO4-NaNO2have been scientifically substantiated.

Findings. The features of the oxidation reaction of cellulose using a mixture of HNO3/H3PO4-NaNO2were studied. It was found that the yield of the product and the amount of -COOН groups in monocarboxylcellulose depend on the reaction conditions, the quantitative composition of the oxidizing mixture and the duration of the reaction. It was found that regardless of the ratio of HNO3 and H3PO4 acids in the reaction mixture, oxytcellulose with high yield (82-88%) and carboxyl groups content of 17.6-22.3% can be obtain by using the reaction mixture HNO3/H3PO4-NaNO2. In addition, an increase in the duration of the oxidation reaction from 12 h to 36 h showed a similar increase in the amount of carboxyl groups in the oxycellulose content. The subsequent increase in the time of the cellulose oxidation reaction has almost no effect on the change in the amount of carboxyl groups in the products.

Keywords: сellulose, oxycellulose, oxidation degree, amount of carboxyl groups, oxidizing mixture.


* oxidation of cellulose was conducted using a mixture of HNO3/H3PO4-NaNO2;

* The relationship between the reaction conditions and product yield, amount of carboxyl groups in the oxycellulose was studied.


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2. Morena A.G., Roncero M.B., Valenzuela S.V., Valls C., Vidal T. Laccase/TEMPO-mediated bacterial cellulose functionalization: production of paper-silver nanoparticles composite with antimicrobial activity // Cellulose. 2019.V.26. P. 8655-8668.

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4. Kunert-Keil Ch.,  Narath I., Hadzik J., Gedrange T., Gredes T., Dominiak M. Histological examinations of the in vivo biocompatibility of oxycellulose implanted into rat skeletal muscle // Аdvances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine. 2019. V.28. P.593-599.

5. Aniskova OE, Polovinkin LV, Yurkshtovich T.L. Preclinical study of the drug "Procelan" // Health. 2004. No. 7. S.36-41.

6. Patent. RF 2465917C2. Polymers containing covalently bound antibiotic agents / Liu H., Min S. 2008.Kumar V., Deshpande G.S. Noncovalent immobilization of bovine serum albumin on oxidized cellulose // Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology.2001. V. 29. P.203-212.

7. Zhu L., Kumar V., Banker G.S. Examination of aqueous oxidized cellulose dispersions as a potential drug carrier: II. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of phenylpropanolamine release from microparticles and pellets // An Official Journal of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. 2004. V.5. No4. Р.145-152.

8. Gen'sh K.V., Bazarnova N.G. Okislennaya tsellyuloza. Polucheniye. Primeneniye v meditsine // Khimiya rastitel'nogo syr'ya. 2013. No. 4. Р.13-20.

9. Gensh K.V., Bazarnova N.G. Oxidized cellulose. receiving. application in medicine // Chemistry of vegetable raw materials. 2013. No. 4. P.13-20.

10. Isogai A., Hаnninen T., Fujisawa S., Saito T. Review: Catalytic oxidation of cellulose with nitroxyl radicals under aqueous conditions. Progress in Polymer Science. 2018. 86. P.122-148.

To cite this article: J. A. Khabibullaev,  Sh. A. Shomurotov, O. R. Akhmedov, A. S. Turaev. The study of the properties of cellulose oxidation with a HNО3/H3PО4-NaNО2 mixture// Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.68-73.

Received: 30.06.2020; Accepted: 31.07.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


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UDC 547.735’854.218.07:542.924

1,3I. S. Ortikov, 1A. U. Berdiev, 2I. A. Abdugafurov, 1B. Zh. Elmuradov


1Institute of Chemistry of Plant Substances of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, E-mail: ilxon@mail.ru2M.Ulugbek National University of Uzbekistan, 3Chirchik Pedagogical Institute, Tashkent Region

Abstract. Background. An important problems is the determination of the structure of the products of potentially active heterocyclic compounds, in particular 2-thioxo-5,6-dimethylthieno [2,3-d] pyrimidin-4-ones, the determination of the structure of the compounds of their derivatives with electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents, and also directed synthesis of promising substances and the creation of effective biologically active drugs based on them. In particular, the preparation of new derivatives of bicyclic 2-thioxo-5,6-dimethylthieno [2,3-d] pyrimidin-4-ones using modern methods of organic synthesis, determining their biological activity and conducting studies on the development of drugs with high pharmacological activity has very important.

Purpose. Synthesis of 2-alkylthio-5,6-dimethylthienopyrimidin-4-on and the conduct of propargylation reactions. Analysis of the structure of the obtained substances by modern physical research methods.

Methodology. 2-alkylthio-3-propargyl-5,6-dimethylthienopyrimidin-4-on are synthesized. The structure of the synthesized substances was confirmed by -IR, 1H-NMR, -Mass spectral analyzes.

Originality. The propargylation of 2-alkylthio-5,6-dimethylthienopyrimidin-4-on was carried out for the first time. The factors affecting the course of the reaction are determined.

Findings. In high yields, 2-alkylthio-3-propargyl-5,6-dimethylthieno [2,3-d] pyrimidin-4 were synthesized. -he. IR, 1H-NMR, Mass spectra of the obtained substances were deeply analyzed and turned out to be appropriate for the corresponding structures.

Key words: 2-thioxo-5,6-dimethylthienopyrimidin-4-on, propargyl bromide, alkyl halides, thin layer chromatography, H1-NMR spectroscopy, 2-methylthio-3-propargyl-5.6-dimethylthieno [2,3-d] pyrimidin-4-one.


* 2-alkylthio-3-propargyl-5.6-dimethylthienopyrimidin-4-on is synthesized;

* identified factors affecting the yield of the reaction;

* IR, PMR spectra were studied and analyzed.


1. Kh. Bozorov, Jiang-Yu Zhao, B. Elmuradov, A. Pataer, H.A. Aisa // European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 102 (2015) 552-573.

2. Amit R. Trivedi // thesis PhD, Saurashtra University. Gujarat, India  2010. -229 p.

3. K. Vikunjana Akbari, D. Pragnesh Patel and C. Keshav Patel// Int. Journal of Chem Tech Research Vol.5, pp 142-155, 2013

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6. Md. M. H. Bhuiyan, K. Md. M. Rahman, Md.K. Hossain, A. Rahim, M.I. Hossain, M.A. Naser // Acta Pharm. 56(2006) 441–450

7. M. M. H. Bhuiyan and M Fakruddin //Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 48 (2005) 37–38.

8. M. M. H. Bhuiyan, K. M. M. Rahman, M. K. Hossain and M. Fakruddin // Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 47 (2004) 256–258.

9. Narendra Singh, L. Shravan Nargund, L. Shachindra Nargund, P. Rashmi, L.V.G. Nargund // Der Chemica Sinica, 2012, 3(1): 198-203.

10. Kh.A. Bozorov Diss .... Cand. chem. sciences. -Tashkent: IKhRV AN RUz, 2010. -164 p. (in Russian)

11. I.S. Ortikov, J.E. Turdibaev, Zh. I. Islamov, B. Zh. Elmuradov, A. Sh. Abdurazakov, A.M. Bektemirov, S.O. Osipova, Z.A. Khushbaktova, V.N. Syrov, H.M. Shakhidoyatov // Chemical and pharmaceutical journal. -Moscow. -2017. - Volume 71, - No. 6. –P. 29-38.

12. Kh.A. Bozorov, B.Zh. Elmuradov, I.S. Ortikov, A.Zh. Kurbanbayeva, Kh.M. Bobakulov, N.D. Abdullaev, Abulimiti Yili, H.A. Aisa, Kh.M. Shakhidoyatov // American Chemical Science Journal, 2013, 3(4): 364-377 (in Russian)

13. Hesse, S.; Perspicace, E.; Kirsch, G. // Tetrahedron Lett. 2007, 48, 5261-5264.

14. Abdel-Rahman B. A. El-Gazzar Hoda A. R. Hussein Hend N. Hafez, // Acta Pharm. 57 (2007) 395–411;

15. Madhurani R. Bhadane, J. N. Narendra Sharath Chandra and L. V. G. Nargund // Scholars Research Library Der Pharma Chemica, 2011, 3 (4):238-244.

16. I.S. Ortikov, B. Zh. Elmuradov, Kh. M. Shakhidoyatov, Thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ones. Part 4. Directions of reactions of the 2-oxo-, -thioxo-5,6-dimethyl-3,4-dihydrothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-4-ones with electrophilic reagents, American Chemical Science Journal  2014, 4 (6), 774-786.

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19. H. Doucet, J.-C. Hierso, Angewandte Chemie, International Edition, 2007, 46 (6), 834-871.

To cite this article: I. S. Ortikov, A. U. Berdiev, I. A. Abdugafurov, B. Zh. Elmuradov. Synthesis of 2-alkylthio-5,6-dimethylthieno [2,3-d] pyrimidine-4-ones and their propargylation// Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.73-79.

Received: 06.07.2020; Accepted: 14.08.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


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UDC 677.46:678.4.066

S. Sh. Ernazarova, A. B. Juraev, M. G. Alimuxamedov


Tashkent Institute of Chemical Technology, Tashkent, e-mail:

Abstract. Background. In the modern textile industry, to improve the production of high-quality synthetic fibers and yarns, innovative technologies are used that increase the physical and mechanical properties of synthetic fibers (polyester) and are environmentally friendly.Globally, the production of fibers from recycled materials using efficient methods of processing PET bottles is growing rapidly from year to year. Therefore, the creation of a technology for obtaining high-quality raw materials from recycled polyethylene terephthalate (RPET) is very important.

The purpose of the study was to determine the physicochemical properties, the characteristic viscosity coefficient and the molecular weight of the samples of the raw material of the RPET flakes, as well as to study the physical and mechanical properties of the spun fibers obtained on the basis of the RPET in two ways.

Methodology. The following methods were used in the study: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), analysis of the melt flow rate (MFR) ISO1133 ASTM, density according to a pycnometer according to GOST 15139-69, intrinsic viscosity is determined according to GOST 10028-81 - with a glass viscometer VTL (viscosity of transparent liquids) - 2 (diameter 1.31 mm, first grade GOST 1942-86 phenol: 1,2-dichloroethane = 2: 3 solvent). The molecular weight of the polymer (RPET) is determined using the Mark-Houwink formula.The physical and mechanical parameters of the fibers were determined according to the GOST6611. “Textile yarn” method.

Originality. As a scientific novelty, it has been shown that the intrinsic viscosity index and molecular weight of RPET of a mixed color are much lower than the molecular weight of RPET of the same color. The method of processing a sample of the same color made it possible to obtain polyester fibers with high physical and mechanical properties.

Findings. As a result of the research, it was found that the coefficient of intrinsic viscosity and the molecular weight of the fibers obtained from mixed and identical SPET flakes varied by 14-15 dl / g and 5084-5650 g / mol, respectively. Differences were found in the physicochemical properties of two different samples of SPET flakes.DSC analysis of monochromatic raw materials revealed that the endothermic peak at 249 ° С consists of quasi-permanent crystals of a fairly perfect composition. As a result, during reverse scanning, melting of the samples was observed at high temperatures.

Keywords: mixed and one-color SPET flakes, coefficient of characteristic viscosity, molecular weight.


* determined the physical and chemical parameters of the one-color RPET of flakes;

* it was possible to improve the physical and mechanical properties of polyester fiber.


1.Sheromova IA Textile materials, structure, properties: textbook. Vladivostok: VSUES Publishing House, 2006.220 p. (in Russian)

2.Thiele U. In: 13th international polyester recycling symposium; 2009. p. 22-3.

3. Aizenshtein E. M (2016) Bottle wastes to textile yarns. Fiber Chem. 47: 343-347.

4. Plastics Europe. The Compelling Facts About Plastics 2009: an analysis of European plastics production, demand and recovery for 2008. Published in September 2009.

5. Plastic Europe (2015). Plastics-the facts 2014-2015 an analysis of European plastics production, demand and waste data. Accessed 20 March 2019.

6. Sustainability Dictionary (2019). Accessed 21 Marсh 2019.

7. Radhakrishnan S. (2017) Denim recycling. Textiles and clothing sustainability: recycled and up cycled textiles and fashion. Springer, Singapore, pp. 79-125.

8. Jose Aguado, David P. Serrano, “Feedstock Recycling of Plastic wastes, RSC Clean Technology Monographs”, 1999, p.192.

9. Li Shen, Ernst Worrell, Martin Kumar Patel. Open Loop recycling: ALCA case study of PET bottle-to-fiber recycling. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. November, 07.09. 2010, vol.55, no 1, p. 34-52.

10. Carbios (2019) CARBIOS: using enzymes to “bio recycle” PET. Accessed 21 March 2019. 

11. Resinate Materials Group (2019). Resinate Materials Group: Turning PET waste into high performance polyester polyols. Accessed 21 March 2019.

12. TWERA. Good Practices Inventory: Deposit-Refund Systems for PET bottles in Taiwan. Asia-Pacific Environmental Innovation Strategies (APEIS), Research on Innovative and Strategic Policy Options (RISPO). Taiwan Environmental Protection Adminstration. Taipei. 2004. Accessed on 15 Apr 2010.

13. Toroptseva A.M., Belgorodskaya K.V., Bondarenko V.M. Laboratory workshop on chemistry and technology of macromolecular compounds. - L .: Chemistry, 1972, - 416 p. (in Russian)

14. Kernitskiy V.I., Fat N.A. Recycling of PET waste highly liquid products. Collection "New polymer composite materials". Materials of the XII-th international scientific-practical conference. Nalchik 2016. P. 171-175. (in Russian)

15. A. Elamri, K.Abid, O.Harzallah, A.Lallam. // Characterization of Recycled/ Virgin PET Polymers and their Composites, // American Journal of Nano Research and Application. 2015; 3(4-1): 11-16. Published online March 4, 2015.    

16.PET fiber - opportunities, markets and technologies. BB Engineering Open House Remscheid, Germany, 21.01.2015. (in Russian)

17.Mehta A., Gaur U., Wunderlich B. // Equilibrium melting parameters of poly (ethylene terephthalates), // J. Polymer Science Polymer Physical. Ed.16:289-296, 1978.

18. All about polyethylene terephthalate. -, 20/07/2005. (in Russian)

To cite this article: S. Sh. Ernazarova, A. B. Juraev, M. G. Alimuxamedov. Production of polyester fiber based on various recycled polyethylene terephthalate raw materials// Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.80-88.

Received: 24.07.2020; Accepted: 22.07.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


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UDC 547.4; 577.114; 581.192

G. A. Khalilova, A. S. Turaev, B. I. Mukhitdinov, S. B. Khaitmetova, N. S. Normakhamatov


Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan, Tashkent, M. Ulugbek, 83e-mail:

Abstract. Background. Polysaccharides isolated from basidial mushroom Ganoderma lucidum possess immunomodulatory, antiviral, hepatoprotective, antiproliferative, hypolipidemic, adaptogenic activities, and therefore are practically significant. These polysaccharides differ in their structure, physicochemical properties, monosaccharide composition, type of glycosidic linkage, molecular weight and water- or alkali-soluble properties. In addition, molecular parameters and structures are important in their biological activities. In this regard, the study of these parameters of polysaccharides isolated from basidial mushroom Ganoderma lucidumis relevant.

Purpose. Isolation, purification of polysaccharides from basidial mushroom Ganoderma lucidum distributed in the Republicof Uzbekistan and study of their composition.

Methodology. Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from basidial mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Polysaccharideswere fractionated to neutral (GW-1) and anion (GW-2) polysaccharides by the ion-exchange chromatography. The monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharides was determined by paper chromatography, the molecular mass characteristics were determined by gel chromatography. The total sugar content of the polysaccharides was evaluated by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. Thestructureofisolatedpolysaccharidesidentified through IR and NMR-spectroscopy.

Originality. Water-soluble polysaccharides were for the first time isolated from the fungus Ganoderma lucidumwidespread in the country, and their composition was determined.

Findings. Water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the basidial mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.The polysaccharides isolated were characterized by monosaccharide composition, weight average molecular weights (Mw), total sugar content and overall structures.

Key words: Ganoderma lucidum, basidial mushrooms, water-soluble polysaccharides, monosaccharide composition, chromatography, sugar content.


* water-soluble polysaccharides were isolated from the basidial mushroomGanoderma lucidum;

* the polysaccharides were studied with respect to physicochemical properties and structures.


1.Yatao W., Yanfang L., Huazheng Y., Shuai Z., Zhong Z., Di W.,Mengqiu Y., Qingjiu T., Jingsong Z. Structural characterization and immuno-enhancing activity of ahighly branched water-soluble -glucan from the spores ofGanoderma lucidum// Carbohydrate Polymers 167(2017)337-344.

2. Feofilova E.P., Filamentous fungi as a source of obtaining new drugs with immunomodulatory, antitumor and wound healing activities // Immunopathology, allergology, infectology, 2004, No. 1, pp. 27-32. (in Russian)

3.Yanfang L., Jingsong Z.,Qingjiu T., Yan Y., Qingbin G.,Qi W., Di W., Steve W.Physicochemical characterization of a high molecular weightbioactiveβ-d-glucan from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum // Carbohydrate Polymers 101(2014)968-974.

4. Gao Y., Huang M., Zhou S. Hepatoprotective activity and the mechanisms of action of Ganoderma lucidum P. Karst. // International journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. -2003. -V.5. -N2. - Р. 111-131.

5. Liu J. [et al/] Possibl mode of action of Ganoderma lucidumin vitro // Journal of Ethnopharmacology. – 2004. – V. 95. – P. 265-272.

6. Lina S.B.,LiC.H.,Lee S.S., Kand L.S. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms // Evidense-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.-2005.-V 96.-Р.285-299.

7. Chkhenkeli V.A., Ogarkov B.N., Chkhenkeli G.D., Ogarkova G.R., Samusenok L.V. Composition and biological activity of extracellular polysaccharides of xylotrophic basidiomycetes // Sib. honey. zhurn., 2006, No. 8 -P. 70-72. (in Russian)

8. Staub, A. M. Removal of protein—Sevag method. Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry (1965)., 5, 5–6.

9. Ye T, et al. The pathway by which the yeast protein kinase Snf1p controls acquisition of sodium tolerance is different from that mediating glucose regulation. // Microbiology (2008) 154(Pt 9):2814-2826

10. Jianguo W., Yahong Y., Tianli Y. Immunostimulatory activities of β-d-glucan from Ganoderma Lucidum // Carbohydrate Polymers 102(2014)47-54.

11. F. Pan, T.J. Su, Y. Liu, K. Hou, C. Chen, W. Wu, Extraction, purification and antioxidation of a polysaccharide from Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabuensis, Int. // J. Biol. Macromol. 112 (2018) 1073–1083.

12.S. Samanta, K. Maity, A.K. Nandi, I.K. Sen, K.S.P. Devi, S. Mukherjee, et al., A glucan from an ectomycorrhizal edible mushroom Tricholoma crassum (Berk.) Sacc.: isolation, characterization, and biological studies, Carbohydr. Res. 367 (2013) 33–40. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2012.12.002.

13. Y. Wang, Y. Liu, H. Yu, S. Zhou, Z. Zhang, D. Wu, et al., Structural characterization and immuno-enhancing activity of a highly branched water-soluble β-glucan from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum, Carbohydr. Polym. 167 (2017) 337–344. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.03.016.

14. S. Vidal, T.Doco, P. Williams, P. Pellerin, W. York, M. O’Neill, J.Glushka, G. Darvill, P. AlbersheimStructural characterization of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II: evidence for the backbone location of the aceric acid-containing oligoglycosyl side chain. // Carbohydrate Research 326 (2000) 277–294.

To cite this article: G. A. Khalilova, A. S. Turaev, B. I. Mukhitdinov, S. B. Khaitmetova, N. S. Normakhamatov. Water-soluble anion polysaccharides of mushroom ganoderma lucidum and theire structural characteristics // Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.88-94.

Received: 15.07.2020; Accepted: 18.09.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


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UDC 543.25:543.4:661.864.1

1N. H. Qutlimurotova,  2F. F. Nurjonova, 1Kh. S. Todjimuhammedov


1National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek, 2Khorezm Academy of Mamun NUUz, Е-mail:

Abstract. Background. The determination and separation of yttrium is an urgent task of modern analytical chemistry, since yttrium is found together with rare earth metals, and the extraction of yttrium requires complex chemical processes. Therefore, it is very important to find a new sensitive reagent and develop a new highly sensitive and selective determination method. The spectrophotometric method is notable for the simplicity of hardware and methodological design, and the speed of analysis.

The results of spectrophotometric determination of yttrium by 2,7-dinitrozo-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid are presented and a method for determining yttrium is developed.

Purpose. Development of spectrophotometric methods for the determination of yttrium ions by 2,7-dinitrozo-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid.

Methodology. As research methods were chosen: spectrophotometry, potentiometry and statistical methods for calculating the results.

Originality. The scientific novelty of the work is the determination of yttrium ions with a new synthesized reagent 2,7-dinitrozo-1-hydroxy-9-aminonaphthalene-6,8-disulfonic acid by spectrophotometry.

Findings. The complexation process of yttrium ions with a solution of 2,7-dinitrozo-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid was studied, and optimal complexation conditions were found. In this case, the composition and stability of the complex were investigated.

Key words: yttrium, spectrophotometry, 2,7-dinitrozo-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid.


* optimization of the conditions of spectrophotometric determination of yttrium by a solution of 2,7-dinitrozo-1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid was carried out;

*the obedience to Beer's law was studied and the developed methodology was applied in the analysis of technological waters.


1.GOST (State Standard) 13997.10-84. Photometric method for the determination of yttrium oxide (in Russian)

2. Qutlimurotova N.Kh. Amperometrical determination of yttrium β-hydroxyethylmide solution // Conf.13 Electrochemistry. Greece. -2019. - p.74.

3. Simakova O.E. Concentration and determination of trace amounts of beryllium, scandium, yttrium with polymeric complexing sorbents with O, O-dioxy-AZO-functional analytical group. Dis. ... Cand. chem. Sciences: 02.00.02 Moscow, 2004 152 p. RSL OD, 61: 04-2 / 425. (in Russian)

4. Cheremisina O.V., Ponomareva M.A., Chirkst D.E., Lobacheva O.L., Shulgin I.A. Sorption separation of yttrium and cerium on a weakly basic anion exchanger. Journal of Physics Chemistry. 2015, T.89. No. 1.P.110-115. (in Russian)

5. Elkin O.V., Kovalevsky A.V., Kovalevskaya L.V. Reaction capacity and electrochemical properties of LiCl-KCl melt kept in contact with yttrium and cerium society, science, innovations (NPK-2013) All-Russian annual scientific-practical conference. Collection of materials. 2013, pp. 1732-1735.

6. Jaison P. G. et al. Comparative Study of Ion Interaction Reagents for the Separation of Lanthanides by Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies. 2017. Vol.32, P.438-443.

7. Tsygankova A.R., Lundovskaya O.V., Saprykin A.I. Analysis of compounds of europium, yttrium and lanthanum by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Journal. analyte. chemistry. -2016.-T.71.-No.2.-P.185-190. (in Russian)

8. Osipov V.V., Solomonov V.I., Spirina A.V., Toropova P.V., Shitov V.A., Chukin A.V., Cholakh S.O. Determination of the phase composition of yttrium oxide nanopowders by luminescent method. News of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Physical series, T. 81, No. 9, 2017 P. 1227-1231. (in Russian)

9. Beltyukova S.V., Malinka E.V., Boychenko V.D., Boychenko Yu.S. Determination of citrate - ions in sweet soft drinks by molecular luminescence of rutin in combination with yttrium (III). Food Science and Technology, 2016, Vol.10, No. 2, P.14-18. (in Russian)

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To cite this article: N. H. Qutlimurotova,  F. F. Nurjonova, Kh. S. Todjimuhammedov. Spectrophotometric determination yttrium of solution 2,7 - dinitrozo-1,8-dihydroxynaphthaline-3,6-disulfoacide// Uzbek chemical journal. -2020. – Nr5. - Pp.95-102.

Received: 17.07.2020; Accepted:18.09.2020; Published: 15.10.2020


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