Uzbek Chemical Journal

VOLUME NR 3

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

 

УДК 674-815

A. A. Abdurakhimov, R. Sayfuddinov, 1D. S. Salihanova

STUDYING OF THE PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CIRCUIT PLATES USING A MODIFIED CONNECTING

Tashkent Institute of Chemical Technology, 1Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, E-mail:salihanova79mail.ru    

Abstract. Background. Currently, carbamide-formaldehyde resin is used as a binder to produce wood-based panels. However, due to the low water resistance of wood-based panels, its use requires certain conditions.

Purpose. Identify the optimal amounts of the gossypol resin modifier introduced and study its effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the resulting plates.

Methodology. The influence of the modifier on the physicomechanical properties of wood-based plates is studied by the method of comparison.

Originality. It has been established that the replacement of 10% urea-formaldehyde resin with a modifier, gossypol resin, leads to a decrease in formaldehyde emission by 50-55%, i.e. confirmed the possibility of binding formaldehyde when exposed to an oligomer and modifier in the process of modifying and pressing chipboard from cotton stalks.

Findings. The optimal amount of modifier-gossypolovy resin, which is applied when using high physical and mechanical properties of the product, is revealed. In addition, the plates fully meet the sanitary and hygienic requirements and may be used in furniture production and construction.

Key words: carbamide-formaldehyde binder, modifier, chipboard, water absorption, swelling, tensile strength, wood chips.

Highlights:

* increase the strength of particle boards due to the modification;

* nitrogen-containing substances lead to an increase in adhesion ability;

* the lowest value of water absorption is observed when the content of the modifier is 10-15%.

References

1. Sayfutdinov R., Abdurakhimov A.A. Izucheniye vliyaniya vremeni pressovaniya na svoystva struzhechnyh plit // Namangan mukhandislik-pedogogika instituti, Ozik-ovkat va kimo sanoatida chikindisiz va ekologik samarador tehnologiyalarini ko’llash. - 2017. - Namangan.

2. Azarov V.I. Modifikatsiya karbamidoformal'degidnyh smol i primeneniye ih v drevesnyh materialah: Diss... dokt. tehn. nauk. -M.: MLTI, 1983. -360 s.

3. V. Azarov. Polimery v proizvodstve drevesnyh materialov. -M.: MGUL, 2-ye izd, 2006. -236 s.

4. Azarov V.I. Tehnologiya svyazuyushchih i polimernyh materialov. -M.: Lesn. prom-st', 1985. - 216 s.

5. Azarov V.I. Khimiya drevesiny i sinteticheskih polimerov Tekst. / V.I. Azarov, A.B. Burov, A.B. Obolenskaya. 2-ye izd., ispr. - SPb. : Izd-vo «Lan'», 2010. - 624 s.

6. El'bert A. A. Himicheskaya tehnologiya drevesnostruzhechnyh plit. -M.: Lesnaya promyshlennost', 1984. -224 s.

7. Fatkhullayev E. Zhalilov A. Kompleksnoye ispol'zovaniye vtorichnyh produktov pererabotki khlopchatnika pri poluchenii polimernyh materialov. –Tashkent: Fan, 1988.

8. Mirkamilov T.M., Sayfuddinov. R, Abdurakhimov A.A., Termicheskaya ustoychivost' modifitsirovannoy mochevino-formal'degidnoy smoly // Uzbekskiy himicheskiy zhurnal. -No1. -1991. - 32-35 s.

9. KH.A.Abdurakhimov., A.A.Abdurakhimov. Izucheniye polimernyh proizvodnyh antranilata gossipola // TAKI, Mukhandislik komunikatsiya tizimlarida yangi anzhumani TAKI-2018. -221-223 bet.

10. K.A.Abdurakhimov., A.A.Abdurakhimov. Vliyaniye otkhodov na svoystva karbamidoformal'degidnogo svyazuyushchego // BITI, “Ilmiy tadkikot va kadrlar tayyorlash tizimida innovatsion hamkorlikni rivozhlantirishning muommmolari va istikbollari” mavzusida ŭtkazilgan Khalkaro ilmiy-amaliy anzhumani materiallari TAKI-2018. - 49-51b.

11. Abdurakhimov A.A., Abdurakhimov KH.A. Vliyaniye otkhodov proizvodstva na svoyistva karbamidnogo polimera // Namangan mukhandislik-tehnologiya instituti, Innovatsion rivozhlanish davrida intensiv yondashuv istikbollari”, nomli halkaro ilmiy amaliy anzhuman materiallari tŭplami. - 2018 y, 10-11 iyul'. - Namangan

To cite this article: A. A. Abdurakhimov, R. Sayfuddinov, D. S. Salihanova. Studying of the physical and mechanical properties of circuit plates using a modified connecting  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.3-8.

Received: 21.03.2018; Accepted: 26.04.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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УДК 66.097.3(088.8)

V. P. Guro, M. A. Ibrahimov, A. T. Dadahodjaev, E. T. Safarov, F. N. Fuzaylova

PROCESSING OF PROCESSED CADMIUM-CALCIUM-PHOSPHATE CATALYST

Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

Abstract. Background. In the process of producing acetaldehyde, JSC NAVOIYAZOT uses the catalyst “Cadmium-calcium-phosphate catalyst (CCF-N)” TU 113-03-00209510-108-2006, at a temperature of 340-350°С and a pressure of 0.2-5- 0.7 atm., Whose service life is limited to 6 months, after which it is changed to a new one. The spent catalyst is stored. Meanwhile, it is a potential raw material for the synthesis of the catalyst CCF-N. Publications on the topic of its processing are few, the corresponding production specialized.

Purpose. Development of technology for the processing of cadmium-calcium-phosphate catalyst, with the maximum degree of extraction of cadmium.

Methodology. Controlling the content of CdO, CaO and P2O5 in the composition of the samples of the spent CCF-N catalyst was performed on an Aligent 7500 ICP MS ICP spectrometer, cadmium was sorbed on C-100 Purolite resin.

Originality. A process flow diagram has been developed for the processing of waste cadmium-calcium phosphate catalyst.

Findings. Information was obtained on the solubility of CCF and precipitating cadmium ions. Isotherm Cadmium adsorption on C-100 Purolite resin was constructed. Experimental batches of CCF were received and sent to Navoiazot JSC.

Keywords: cadmium, catalyst, precipitation, sorption, technology

Highlights:

* the optimal solvent is chosen - nitric acid;

* calcium precipitation in the form of calcium sulfate;

* cadmium sorption on C-100 Purolite resin.

References

1. Guro V.P., Dadakhodzhayev A.T., Ibragimova M.A., Fuzaylova F.N. Polucheniye kadmiy-kal'tsiy-fosfatnogo katalizatora sinteza atsetal'degida // Uzb. himich. zh. – 2018. -No1. – S.41-46.

2. Gorin YU.A. Goskhimgidrat, TZ (1959). – S. 8 (194) – 14 (200); T2 (1959). - S. 85 (177) - 88 (180).

3. A.s. SSSR № 295578. V.E. Gaag, N.V. Petrusheva. Sposob regeneratsii kadmiykal'tsiyfosfatnogo katalizatora; Zayavl. 13.01.1970; Opubl. 12.11.1971. Byull.No8.

4. Ligiane R.Gouvea, Carlos A.Morais. Recovery of zinc and cadmium from industrial waste by leaching/cementation // Minerals Engineering. –V. 20. -Issue 9. -2007. –P. 956-958.

5. C.A. Nogueira, F.Delmas, New flowsheet for the recovery of cadmium, cobalt and nickel from spent Ni–Cd batteries by solvent extraction // Hydrometallurgy. –V. 52. - Issue 3. – 1999. –P. 267-287.

6. Nagpur Navneet Singh. Recovery of metals from spent nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery by leaching-electrowining process // Internal Conference on Nonferrous Metals. -2014. -Nagpur City (INDIA).

7. Karuppanna Periasamy, and Chinnaiya Namasivayam. Process Development for Removal and Recovery of Cadmium from Wastewater by a Low-Cost Adsorbent: Adsorption Rates and Equilibrium Studies // Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 33, 2, 317-320, DOI: 10.1021/ie00026a022

8. Jasmin Shah, Muhammad Rasul Jan, Mansoor Khan & Salma Amir. Removal and recovery of cadmium from aqueous solutions using magnetic nanoparticle-modified sawdust: kinetics and adsorption isotherm studies, P.9736-9744, Received 22 Jul 2014, Accepted 11 Mar 2015, Published online: 07 Apr 2015. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2015.1030777

9. V.P. Guro, M.A. Ibragimova, Ye.T., Safarov, F.N. Fuzaylova, A.T. Dadakhodzhayev. Tehnologiya izvlecheniya kadmiya iz otrabotannogo kadmiy-kal'tsiy-fosfatnogo katalizatora // Uzb. himich. zh. - 2019. - No1. - S.45-48.

10. Shapkin M.A. Dvoynoy superfosfat. – Leningrad: Khimiya, 1987. -131 s.

To cite this article: V. P. Guro, M. A. Ibrahimov, A. T. Dadahodjaev, E. T. Safarov, F. N. Fuzaylova. Processing of processed cadmium-calcium-phosphate catalyst // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.8-14.

Received: 06.03.2018; Accepted: 19.04.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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УДК: 620.197.3

1G. R. Rikhsikhodzhaeva, 2B. A. Smanov, 2B. Kh. Ubaydullayev, 1A. N. Rizayev, 2B. N. Khamidov

IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF HEAT EXCHANGE EQUIPMENT USING CORROSION AND SCALING INHIBITORS

1Tashkent Institute of Railway Engineers, Tashkent, 2Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent

Abstract. Background. The efficiency of the heat exchange equipment, in the conditions of a closed domestic water supply, depends on corrosion and deposition of mineral salts on their surface. The problem of protection against them, so far, has been solved using imported scale inhibitors. Development and implementation of corrosion and scaling inhibitors based on local raw materials is an urgent problem.

Purpose of this work is the development of corrosion and scaling inhibitors, from local raw materials, for water of a wide range of salinity.

Methodology. The degree of inhibitory protection (Z), assessed by the methods of polarization curves (PC) (PI-50-1 potentiostat, potentials - in the scale of the normal hydrogen electrode (n.h.e.) and polarization resistance (PR) (corrosion meter R-5035). Gravimetric measurements (GM) were carried out in static and dynamic conditions (mixing, 300 rpm) for ≤30 days. Scaling inhibition was determined using an ISO-1 device.

Originality. It is established that the concentration of chemicals that affect the corrosive properties of water should not exceed the standards in accordance with GOST 2877-82. The nature of the course of corrosion depends on the ions present in the corrosive environment.

Findings. The effectiveness of the use of corrosion and scaling inhibitors of GPMSH and IONH-1 relative to imported OEDFK is determined.

Keywords: inhibitor, corrosion, scaling, corrosion rate, heat exchange equipment.

Highlights:

* the influence of the composition of water on the corrosion of steel Art.20 and scaling has been determined;

* optimal concentrations of corrosion inhibitors and scaling were established.

References

1. Khamidov B.N., Shamshiyev S., Guro V.P., Abdullayev SH.A. Ingibitor korrozii i nakipeobrazovaniya teploobmennoy apparatury trubchatyh pechey NPZ i ohlazhdayushchego dizelya. // Materialy mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii vtorykh Nodirovskikh chteniy. - Alma-Ata, Kyzyl orda. – 2004 g.

2. Kolotyrkin YA.M. Elektrokhimicheskiye aspekty korrozii metallov.// Zashchita metallov. -1984.- T. 20.- № 1.- S.59 -70.

3. Zashchita neftepromyslovogo oborudovaniya ot korrozii. E.M. Gutman [i dr.]. – Moskva. - 1987.

4. Zashchita himicheskogo oborudovaniya nemetallicheskimi pokrytiyami // L.G. Bogatkova [i dr.]. – Moskva. - 1989.

5. Tehnicheskoye opisaniye i instruktsiya po ekspluatatsii. Indikator solevykh otlozheniy ISO-1/ Kafedra fizicheskoy i analiticheskoy himii Ural'skogo lesotekhnicheskogo instituta. – Sverdlovsk. - 1991.

6. GOST 9.905-82 Metody korrozionnykh ispytaniy. Obshchiye trebovaniya. - M.: Izd. Gosstandart, 1982. - 22 s.

7. Rikhsikhodzhayeva G.R., Rizayev A.N., Ubaydullayev B.KH., Ganiyeva S.KH., Smanov B.A. Razrabotka ingibitorov korrozii i soleotlozheniy dlya zashchity stal'nyh konstruktsiy neftepererabatyvayushchikh predpriyatiy // Problemy Arkhitektury i stroitel'stva (nauchno-tehnicheskiy zhurnal). – Samarkand. – 2018. - No 4. - S. 50-58.

8. Guro V.P., Salikhanova D.S., Eshmetov I.D., Ibragimova M.A., Agzamova F.N. Importozameshchayushchiy ingibitor soleotlozheniy «IONKH-1» dlya AO «Almalykskiy GMK» // Uzbekskiy himicheskiy zhurnal. – 2017. - No 2. - S. 14-18.

To cite this article: G. R. Rikhsikhodzhaeva, B. A. Smanov, B. Kh. Ubaydullayev, A. N. Rizayev, B. N. Khamidov. Improving the efficiency of heat exchange equipment using corrosion and scaling inhibitors // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.14-19.

Received: 22.03.2018; Accepted: 02.05.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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УДК 553.551.4

D. K. Adylov, A. U. Mirzaev, E. V. Safonova, N. I. Chernichenko

DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD FOR DECOMPOSITION OF DOLOMITE OF VAUSH DEPOSIT

Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Mirzo Ulugbek st. - 77a, E-mail: Adilov1946@mail.ru

Abstract. Background. The chemical industry of Uzbekistan is in need of magnesium compounds. The lack of its own raw material base makes it necessary to import magnesite, bischofite, magnesia refractories. Therefore, complex research and the development of an efficient technology for the decomposition of natural dolomites is of great importance. The territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan is rich in dolomite deposits such as Vaush, Navbahor, Ketmenchi, Kamyshbashi (Shorsu), Dekhkanabad and others. Deposits of dolomite rocks are also located in Tashkent, Fergana and Bukhara regions.

Purpose. The aim of the study is to study the effect of sodium chloride on the decomposition of dolomite, to obtain caustic dolomite at a low firing temperature. Studying the effect of sodium chloride treatment on the further decomposition of dolomite, which contributes to cheaper technology.

Methodology. Grinding and classification of samples of dolomitic ores were carried out using standard laboratory equipment, according to standard methods. In laboratory studies, the initial decomposition of dolomite was carried out in a muffle furnace, the resulting caustic dolomite was dissolved using a specially assembled installation consisting of an electric vacuum pump, a five-liter conical flask, and a vacuum hose. Phase separation of the solution was performed on a Buchner funnel.

Originality. An improved method for the decomposition of dolomite after treatment with sodium chloride solution at a low calcination temperature with the further process of decomposition of caustic dolomite in the presence of an ammonium salt solution is proposed.

Findings. It was established that in the presence of sodium chloride, the difference in the thermal dissociation temperature of MgCO3 and CaCO3 increases from 100 to 200°C, which makes it possible to obtain caustic dolomite with MgO while maintaining the original CaCO3. To obtain caustic dolomite, the loss in mass of dolomite samples at different temperatures without the addition of sodium chloride was studied.

Keywords: natural dolomite, ammonium salts, sodium chloride, calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide

Highlights:

* weigh loss of dolomite samples at various temperatures with and without additives of sodium chloride;

* decomposition temperature of dolomite with addition of sodium chloride.

References

1. Patent RUz. «Sposob polucheniya okisi magniya iz dolomita» / A. T. Dadakhodzhayev. No 1AR 04704 ot 11.12.2009.

2. Ye. S. Danchuk, I. A. Belova, T. F. Svit. «Svoystva osnovnogo karbonata magniya, poluchayemogo sodovym sposobom». Altayskiy gosudarstvennyy tehnicheskiy universitet. Gorod Barnaul.

3. V. Ramachandran, R. Fel'dman, Dzh. Boduen. «Nauka o betone. Fiziko–himicheskoye betonovedeniye» / Perevod s angliyskogo k. kh. n. T. I. Rozenberg, YU. B. Ratinovoy. Pod redaktsiyey V. B. Ratinova. –Moskva: «Stroyizdat», 1986. -S. 219

4. Patent Rossiyskoy Federatsii. «Sposob polucheniya kausticheskogo dolomita». M. YA. Bikbau / No C0489/00, ot 27.10.2000 g.

5. YU. M. Butt, M. M. Sychev, V. V. Timashev. «Himicheskaya tehnologiya vyazhushchikh materialov». –Moskva: «Vysshaya shkola», 1980. -S. 54–55.

6. GOST 4233-77 Natriy khloristyy. Tehnicheskiye usloviya.

7. GOST 9325-79 Soli ugleammoniynyye. Tehnicheskiye usloviya.

8. Cherkasov A.V. Maloenergoyomkaya tehnologiya vyazhushchikh kompozitsiy s upravlyayemym rasshireniyem: Dis...kand.tehn.nauk. –Belgorod. -2006.

9. KheykorD.M., Zevin L.S. Rentgenovskiye metody issledovaniya stroitel'nyh materialov. –M. Stroyizdat, 1965. - 220 s.

10. Gorshkov V.S., Timashev V.V. i dr. Metody fiziko-himicheskogo analiza vyazhushchih veshchestv. -M. «Vysshaya shkola», 1981.

11. Mirkin L.I. Spravochnik po rentgenostrukturnomu analizu polikristallov. -M.: Fiz.mat.literatura, 1964. -640 s.

12. GOST 6419-78. Reaktivy. Magniy uglekislyy osnovnoy vodnyy.

To cite this article: A D. K. Adylov, A. U. Mirzaev, E. V. Safonova, N. I. Chernichenko. Development of a method for decomposition of dolomite of Vaush deposit // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.19-27.

Received: 16.04.2018; Accepted: 13.05.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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УДК 621.357(083)

F. N. Fuzaylova, V. P. Guro, A. T. Dadahodzhaev

QUALITY OF COATINGS ON BLACK METALS FROM IMPORT REPLACING SOLUTIONS OF CHEMICAL PHOSPHATING

Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent E-mail: vpguro@gmail.com

Abstract. Background. To protect products made from ferrous metals, phosphate concentrates are used in industry, films based on which have a number of valuable properties. Phosphating is an energy-intensive process, as the working temperature of phosphating is high. However, interest is attracted by low-temperature phosphate concentrates used in this work as comparative samples.

Purpose assessment of the quality of coatings on ferrous metals from import-substituting solutions of chemical phosphating, in comparison with the composition of Foscon-35.

Methodology. Titrimetric, gravimetric control, pH at different temperatures - according to GOST 22567.5; assessment of the quality of phosphate-oxide coating on ferrous metals - according to GOST 9.302-88, using the drop method and immersion in solution No. 38 until the pink color of contact copper appears (the exposure time up to this point should be at least 120 seconds).

Originality. It is shown that the phosphating compositions based on local raw materials are functionally similar to the imported composition Foscon-35 and satisfy the requirements of GOST 9.302-88.

Findings. The physicochemical parameters of phosphate films on steel, obtained at elevated temperatures in phosphating solutions, for different exposure times and changes in the pH of the medium were studied.

Keywords: chemical phosphating, surface protection, carbon steel, corrosion, exposure time.

Highlights:

* the properties of phosphate coatings of Foscon-35 steel and analogues were studied;

* comparative characteristics of imported drugs and local analogues.

References

1. Akayeva T.K., Rodin O.N., Akayev O.P. i dr. Fosfatirovaniye stal'nyh izdeliy sostavami na osnove fosfornoy kisloty // Vestnik Kostromskogo Gos. Universiteta im. N.A. Nekrasova. -2013. -№4. – S. 8–12.

2. Akayeva T.K., Rodin O.N., Gunin V.V. i dr. Optimizatsiya rezhimov fosfatirovaniya sostavami na osnove fosfornoy kisloty // Vestnik KGU im. N.A. Nekrasova. -2014. -№ 5. -S.39-41.

3. Tikhvinskaya M., Volynskiy V.Ye. Praktikum po obshchey himicheskoy tehnologii. – M.: Prosveshcheniye, 1984. -160 s.

4. Mamayev V.I., Shishkina S.V. Osobennosti fosfatirovaniya stal'nyh detaley v nizkotemperaturnyh rastvorah metodom pogruzheniya // Gal'vanotehnika i obrabotka poverhnosti. -2011. –T. XIX. -No1. - S.50-54.

5. Grigoryan N.S., Akimova Ye.F., Vagramyan T.A. Fosfatirovaniye. – M.: Globus, 2008. -144 s.

6. Kozlova L.A., Okulov V.V. Fosfatirovaniye // Gal'vanotehnika i obrabotka poverhnosti. -2000. – 8. - No 3. –S. 40–49.

7. Grubin S.D., Grigoryan N.S., Akimova Ye.F. i dr. Korrozionnostoykiye fosfatnyye pokrytiya na tsinke // Gal'vanotehnika i obrabotka poverhnosti. – 2003. –11. - No 2. –S.35–40.

8. Kontsentraty, fosfatiruyushchiye Foskon-35, Foskon-3K. Tehnicheskiye usloviya. TU 2149-205-10964029-2004, izm. 1, 2, 3.

9. Yedinaya sistema zashchity ot korrozii i stareniya. Pokrytiya lakokrasochnyye, podgotovka metallicheskih poverhnostey pered okrashivaniyem. GOST9.402-80 (ST SEV 5732-86) IPKYU. -Izdatel'stvo standartov. –Moskva. – 1998.

10. Yedinaya sistema zashchity ot korrozii i stareniya pokrytiya, metallicheskiye i nemetallicheskiye neorganicheskiye metody kontrolya GOST 9.302-88.

11. Patent RF №2380458. Sposob polucheniya tsink-nitrat-fosfatnogo kontsentrata / Yagubova V.L., Miroshnichenko YU.S., Chumayevskiy V.A. (RU); Zayav. 2008122869/15, 06.06.2008; Opub.: 27.01.2010 Byul. № 3.

12. J. I. Wragg, J. E. Chamberlain, L. Chann, H. W. White, T. Sugama, S. Manalis. "Characterisation of Polyacrylic Acid modified Zinc Phosphate Crystal Conversion Coatings" // Journal of Applied Polymer Science. -V. 50. -P. 917-928 (1993).

13. Fuzaylova F. N, Guro V. P, Dadakhodzhayev A. T, Ibragimova M. A. Elektrolit khimicheskogo fosfatirovaniya poverhnosti uglerodistoy stali, poluchennyy na osnove mestnogo syr'ya // Uzbekskiy him. zh. – 2018. - No 6. – S.27

To cite this article: F. N. Fuzaylova, V. P. Guro, A. T. Dadahodzhaev. Quality of coatings on black metals from import replacing solutions of chemical phosphating  // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.27-31.

Received: 08.02.2018; Accepted: 12.04.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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УДК 666.364:553.613

Al. A. Eminov, M. I. Iskandarova

STUDY OF SOLID PHASE CONVERSIONS OF LEYKOKRAT OF GRANITE KARGALI

Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Tashkent E-mail: Afzal_eminov@mail.ru

Abstract. Background. Due to the increasing need for high-strength ceramic materials and import substitution, there is a need for research to develop new compositions of stone-ceramic materials based on domestic raw materials and secondary resources. In the Republic, many types of ceramic materials are not produced. Therefore, the study of the physicochemical processes of high-temperature phase transitions during the heat treatment of the charge components is of current importance.

Purpose.To develop the composition of high-strength stone-ceramic materials.

Methodology. The experiments were performed using physicochemical, in particular, X-ray and differential-thermal research methods.

Originality. The laws governing phase transitions from an amorphized structure into a crystal structure and the formation of crystalline phases during a high-temperature calcination process, as well as the effects of temperature regimes on the structure formation of minerals of the microcline group, plagioclase and cristobalite, are established.

Findings. It was established that as a result of the phase transition of this raw material, crystalline phases of wollastonite, sillimanite, anorthite, α-quartz and cristobalite minerals are formed.

Keywords: leucocratic granite, feldspar, microcline, plagioclase, albite, anorthite, wollastonite, sillimanite, cristobalite, quartz

Highlights:

* phase transitions in experimental samples of leucocratic granites were investigated;

* the temperatures of phase transformations of the studied raw materials are established.

References

1. Belous A.G. Nekotoryye tendentsii razvitiya funktsional'nykh materialov na osnove slozhnykh oksidnyh sistem // Ukrainskiy himicheskiy zhurnal. - 2009. - № 7. – C. 3-14.

2. Takeuchi Nobuyuki, Takahoshi Hidenari, Ishida Shingo, Horie Futoshi, Wakamatsu Mitsuru. Mechanistic study of solid-state reaction between kaolininte and ferrous oxide at high temperatures.// Ceram.Soc.Japan. - 2000. - V.108. - No 1262. - P.876-881.

3. Tret'yakov YU.D. Tverdofaznyye reaktsii. – M.: Khimiya, 1978. - 360 s.

4. Knot'ko A.V. Himiya tverdogo tela. / A.V.Knot'ko , I.A.Presnyakov , YU.D.Tret'yakov. – M.: Izd. Tsentr «Akademiya», 2006.- 304s.

5. Andrianov N.T., Balkevich V.L., Belyakov A.S. i dr. Himicheskaya tehnologiya keramiki. – M.: OOO RIF «Stroymaterialy», 2012. - 496 s.

6. Salakhov A.M., Salakhova R.A. Keramika: issledovaniye syr'ya, struktura i svoystva. -Kazan': KNITU, 2013. -316 s.

7. Boyko G.G., Borminskiy S.I., Fayziyeva M.S., Makhkamova M.KH. Razrabotka tehnologiy pererabotki nerudnogo mineral'nogo syr'ya s tsel'yu zamena vvozimogo mestnym. Otchet IMR za 2001-2003 g. 249s.

8. Fimushkin L.I., Ergeshov A.M. Sostoyaniye ispol'zovaniya i perspektivy razvitiya mineral'no-syr'yevoy bazy nerudnogo syr'ya Uzbekistana // ZH Geologiya i mineral'nyye resursy. - No 5. -2007. -S. 92-95.

9. Boyko G.G., Fayziyeva M.S., Koroleva I.V., Borminskiy S.I., Makhkamova M.KH. Tehnologicheskiye ispytaniya obogatimosti nerudnogo syr'ya (fosforit, brusit, barit i dr.) s tsel'yu zameny vvozimogo syr'ya mestnymi resursami. Otchet IMR za 2004-2006 g. 240s.

10. Dolimov T.N. i dr. Geologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye Respubliki Uzbekistan. -T.: «Universitet», 1998. - 724 s.

11. Maslennikova G.N., Zhekisheva S.ZH., Kudryashov N.I. Keramicheskoye syr'ye Tsentral'noy Azii. Bishkek // Tekhnologiya. - 2002. - 231 s.

12. Berg L.G. Vvedeniye v termografiyu. - M.: Nauka, 1969. -208 s.

13. Topor N.D. Differentsial'no-termicheskiy i termovesovoy analiz mineralov. - M.: Nedra, 1964. - 214 s.

14. Gogotsi G.A., Zavada V.P., Fesenko A.I. Metodika i nekotoryye rezul'taty issledovaniya R–krivyh v keramike // Zavod.lab. - 1992. - T.58. - No 2. - S. 40-43.

15. ASTM Standards Part 17, “Refractories, Glass, Ceramic Materials, Carbon and Graphite Products” ASTM, Philadelphia. – 2005. - R. 7-9, 51-61.

16. Schüller K.H. Kristallisation von Sekundörmullit beim Breunen von kaoline, unterschiedlicher Reinheit.//Ber.DKG.-1978.-Bd.55.-No2.-P.52-55.

17. Eminov Al. A., Eminov A.M., Negmatov S.S., Kadyrova Z.R. Microstructure Investigation of the Leucratic Granites of the Kargaliiskoe Deposit // Journal Class and Ceramics. -2017. -V.74. -Issue 3.-4. -R. 137-139.

To cite this article: Al. A. Eminov, M. I. Iskandarova. Study of solid phase conversions of leykokrat of granite Kargali // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.31-36.

Received: 16.04.2018; Accepted: 20.05.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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УДК 631.85.661

1N. Yo. Juraev, А. А. Mamataliev, Sh. S. Namazov, А. R. Setnazarov

LIMESTONE AMMONIUM NITRATE BASED ON THE MELT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE AND LIMESTONE OF THE FORISH DEPOSIT

Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 1JSC “NAVOIYAZOT”

Abstract. Bacgraund. The explosiveness of ammonium nitrate (AN) is more serious shortfall than its caking. In Russia, Cherepovets Nitrogen OJSC organized the production of complex nitrogen-phosphate fertilizer (NPF containing 32% N and 5% P2O5) by introducing into the NH4NO3 melt a liquid complex fertilizer of 11% N, 37% P2O5 from superphosphoric acid. In Uzbekistan, NAVOIYAZOT JSC introduced phosphatized AN (NPF - nitrogen-phosphate fertilizer with a content of 22-28% N, 2-6% P2O5), by adding phosphate flour (17-18% P2O5) to NH4NO3 melt. And the production of lime-ammonium nitrate (LAN) is established in European countries and in Russia, with the addition of limestone or chalk in the melt NH4NO3. Uzbekistan also has huge reserves of limestone and dolomite, which open up the possibility of creating an LAN production. In this regard, the development of scientific principles and technology for producing an explosion-safe AN with the addition of local carbonate minerals is an urgent task.

Purpose. Studying the process of obtaining granulated LAN based on NH4NO3 melt and limestone from the Forish deposit (Jizzax region).

Methodology. The introduction of crushed limestone in the melt NH4NO3 followed by granulation of nitrate-carbonate melts using the prilling method as well as determining the composition and properties of the finished products.

Originality. It was revealed that the use of the CaCO3 additive in the NH4NO3 melt at a mass ratio of from 100: 5 to 100: 80, allows to increase the strength of the nitrate granules by 2.3-5.9 times and reduce the time of their dissolution by 2 times.

Findings. For the granulation of nitrate-carbonate melt the prilling method is applied using a granulation tower. Studied the composition and properties of new types of fertilizers. It is shown that with the ratio NH4NO3: CaCO3 = 100: 25 the product contains 27.91% N, 11.06% CaO and has a granule strength of 4.55 MPa, which is much higher than the strength of pure NH4NO3 granules (1.32 MPa). Porosity and absorption of pure AN granules is 22.0% and 4.82 g. With an increase in the proportion of limestone to the NH4NO3: CaCO3 = 100: 25 ratio, the porosity and absorbency of the LAN granules is 8.15% and 3.22g, respectively.

Keywords: melt, limestone, lime-ammonium nitrate, composition, strength, porosity, absorption, dissolution rate, granules.

Highlights:

* granules of limestone-ammonium were obtained by introducing limestone into the melt.

* their composition and properties are determined.

References

1. Boynazarov D. Melioratsiya i agrotekhnicheskiye meropriyatiya. // Gazeta “Narodnoye slovo”. – 2014 god 26 fevral' – No 40 (5970).

2. Prezident Respubliki Uzbekistan Mirziyoev SH.M. Torzhestvennoye sobraniye «Truzhenki sel'skogo hozyaystva – prochnyy stolp zhizni, krepkaya opora nashego blagopoluchiya», sostoyavshcheyesya vo Dvortse mezhdunarodnykh forumov «Uzbekistan» 9 dekabrya 2017 goda po sluchayu Dnya rabotnikov sel'skogo hozyaystva. // Gazeta “Narodnoye slovo” ot 10 dekabrya 2017 goda. – No 248 (6912).

3. Ammiachnaya selitra: svoystva, proizvodstvo, primeneniye / A.K.Chernyshov, B.V.Levin, A.V.Tugolukov, A.A.Ogarkov, V.A.Il'in. – M.: ZAO «INFOKHIM», 2009. – 544 s.

4. Lavrov V.V., Shvedov K.K. O vzryvoopasnosti ammiachnoy selitry i udobreniy na yeyo osnove // Nauchno-tehnicheskiye novosti: ZAO «INFOKHIM». – Spetsvypusk. – 2004. – No 4.– S. 44-49.

5. Zhmay L., Khristianova Ye. Ammiachnaya selitra v Rossii i v mire. Sovremennaya situatsiya i perspektivy // Mir sery, N, P i K. – 2004. – No 2. – S. 8-12.

6. Postnikov A.V. Proizvodstvo i primeneniye izvestkovo-ammiachnoy selitry // Himizatsiya sel'skogo hozyaystva. – 1990 – No 9. – S. 68-73.

7. Il'in V.A. Razrabotka tehnologii slozhnogo azotno-fosfatnogo udobreniya na osnove splava ammiachnoy selitry: Avtoref…kand. tehn. nauk. - Ivanovskiy Gos. Himiko-tehnologicheskiy universitet, g. Ivanova. – 2006. – 17 s.

8. Patent № 2223932 Rossiya Kl. S05V 7/00, S05S 1/00. Sposob polucheniya slozhnykh azotno-fosfornyh udobreniy / V.A.Il'in, O.I.Patokhin, O.L.Glagolev, Ye.N.Selin, B.V.Levin, A.N.Sokolov, A.YU.Sokolov, V.P.Samsonov, M.I.Rezen'lov, V.R.Ansheles, Z.P.Simbireva, N.Ye.Zhavoronkogo, O.Ye.Vasil'kova. – ot 20.02.2004.

9. Patent № 04527 RUz. Kl. 8S05G 1/00, S05V 7/00.S05S 1/00. Sposob polucheniya azotnofosfornogo udobreniya / SH.S.Namazov, B.B.Botirov, V.V.Pak, SH.I.Salikhov, A.M.Reymov, R.Yakubov, B.M.Beglov, R.K.Kurbaniyazov, N.N.Pirmanov, B.S.Zakirov. -31.07.2012. -Byul. No 7.

10. M.M. Vinnik, L.N. Yerbanova, P.M. Zaytsev i dr. Metody analiza fosfatnogo syr'ya, fosfornyh i kompleksnyh udobreniy, kormovyh fosfatov. – M.: Himiya, 1975. – 213 s.

11. Tehnologiya ammiachnoy selitry / Pod red. prof. V.M.Olevskogo. – M.: Himiya, 1978. – 312 s.

12. Kopeykina A.N. Znacheniye vtorichnyh elementov pitaniya dlya sel'skohozyaystvennykh kul'tur // Himicheskaya promyshlennost' za rubezhom. – M.: NIITEKHIM, 1984. – No 1. – S. 26-44.

To cite this article: N. Yo. Juraev, А. А. Mamataliev, Sh. S. Namazov, А. R. Setnazarov. Limestone ammonium nitrate based on the melt of ammonium nitrate and limestone of the Forish deposit // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.36-42.

Received: 15.04.2018; Accepted: 20.05.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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УДК 691.8

B. T. Sabirov, S. S. Tairov, Z. R. Kadyrova, А. М. Eminov

DEVELOPMENT OF MASS COMPOSITIONS FOR CERAMIC TILES APPLYING LOGONIC BENTONITE CLAY AS A PLASTICIZING COMPONENT

Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Abstract. Background. The problem for enterprises producing ceramic tiles is the search and expansion of the raw material base. An important role is played by the use of available plasticizing components in the development of compositions of ceramic mass, which allows simultaneously reducing the final firing temperature at high temperatures of heat treatment. In this regard, conducting comprehensive studies to establish the possibility of using bentonite clay from the Logon deposit as part of ceramic masses intended for the production of tiles that are characterized by a short heat treatment time at high-speed firing conditions is relevant.

Purpose: to study the physicochemical properties of bentonite clay from the Logon deposit and to develop optimal compositions of ceramic masses for facing tiles.

Methodology. We used methods of chemical, X-ray phase analysis, DTA, electron microscopy. The physicotechnical parameters of the test samples were carried out according to GOST 6141-91 and Oz’St 823-97.

Originality. The possibility has been established of entering into the composition of ceramic mass for facing tiles 10–25% of bentonite clay from the Logonsky deposit without reducing its strength and increasing water absorption, which is ensured by sintering and recrystallization with the formation of new minerals of quartz - SiO2, anorthite - CaO∙Al2O3∙2SiO2, spinel - MgAl2O4 and partially albite - Na[AlSi3O8].

Findings. The chemical and mineralogical composition of Logon bentonite clay was determined and its influence on the physicotechnical properties of ceramic tiles was established. It was revealed that the introduction of 20–25% Logon bentonite clay has a positive effect on the course of physicochemical processes at high calcination temperatures, intensification of sintering, and physico-technical indicators of the ceramic crock.

Keywords: ceramic mass, bentonite clay, charge, Angren gilezh, roasting, sintering, ceramic tile, shrinkage, water absorption

Highlights:

* the introduction of 20-25% Logon clay increases the physico-mechanical properties;

* minerals are formed: quartz - 24-36%, anorthite - 50-63%, spinel - 6-12%.

References

1. Tadzhiyev F.KH. Primeneniye bentonitov v proizvodstve keramicheskih stroitel'nyh materialov. V knige «Syr'yevaya baza bentonitov SSSR, ih ispol'zovaniye v narodnom hozyaystve». –Moskva: Izd. «Nedra», 1972. -S.239-251.

2. Patent RF 2537724. Keramicheskaya massa dlya izgotovleniya oblitsovochnoy plitki. Opublikovano: 10.01.2015.

3. Patent RF 2420477. Keramicheskaya massa dlya oblitsovochnoy plitki. Opublikovano: 10.06.2010.

4. Patent RF 2413695. Keramicheskaya massa dlya izgotovleniya oblitsovochnoy plitki. Opublikovano: 10.03.2011.

5. Patent SSSR 1359268. Keramicheskaya massa dlya izgotovleniya oblitsovochnyh i fasadnyh plitok. Opublikovano: 15.12.1987.

6. Patent RF 2437855. Keramicheskaya massa dlya izgotovleniya oblitsovochnoy plitki. Opublikovano:. 27.12.2011.

7. Gorbunov G.I., Zvezdin D.F. Keramicheskaya plitka. Tekhnologiya proizvodstva i novyye predlozheniya. //«Rossiyskiy Himicheskiy Zhurnal». Razdel: Stroitel'nyye materialy. Himiya sovremennyh stroitel'nyh materialov. -Tom XLVII. -2003. - No4.

8. Gur'yeva V.A. Osnovy formirovaniya struktury i tehnologii stroitel'noy keramiki na baze alyumomagnezial'nogo syr': Avtoref. doktora tehn. nauk. -Samara, 2011.

9. Orazbek T.O.Stenovyye materialy na osnove syr'yevyh kompozitsiy suglinok-barkhannyy pesok-bentonit: Avtoref. kand. tehn. nauk. -Respublika Kazakhstan, g.Kyzylorda, 2000. -S.22.

10. Shakirova Z.V. Keramicheskiye kompozity na barkhannyh peskah: Avtoref. kand. tehn. nauk. -Moskva, 1994, S.21.

11. Umurzakov E.K. Polucheniye poristogo zapolnitelya iz barkhannogo peska, nefteotkhodov i betonov na yego osnove: Avtoref. kand. tehn. nauk, Tashkent, 1995. -S.25

12. Kantsepol'skiy I.S.Gliyezh, kak aktivnaya mineral'naya dobavka. –Tashkent: Izd. «FAN», 1958. -S.45-49. 13. Fadeyev P.I. Peski SSSR. M.: Izd-vo Moskovskogo Universiteta, 1951. -287s.

To cite this article: B. T. Sabirov, S. S. Tairov, Z. R. Kadyrova, А. М. Eminov. Development of mass compositions for ceramic tiles applying Logonic bentonite clay as a plasticizing component // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.42-49.

Received: 16.04.2018; Accepted: 20.05.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

 

УДК 544.182

I. N. Nurgaliyev, B. L. Oksengendler, S. Sh. Rashidova

TO THE QUESTION OF THE CONCEPT OF QUANTUM-CHEMICAL THEORY OF REACTION ABILITY OF FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF POLYMERS

Institute of Chemistry and Physics of Polymers of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, 100128, Uzbekistan, E-mail: polymer@academy.uz

Abstract. Background. Each molecule of a polymer substrate actually represents a whole spectrum of substrates (reaction centers) with different reactivity. The reactivity of polymers, which depends on many factors, including the presence of functional groups, is a collective concept, currently needs to be interpreted within the framework of the fundamental concepts of polymer physics and chemistry. This concept is a band gap in the electronic spectrum, representing the difference in the energies of the lowest free and highest occupied molecular orbitals of the polymer.

Purpose. Discussion of the new concept of the quantum-chemical theory of the reactivity of polymers containing various functional groups on the example of the reactivity of N, O-carboxymethylchitosan in the preparation of nanoparticles.

Methodology. Conductometric titration, NMR, IR spectroscopy, quantum chemical theory were used in the work.

Originality, the question of the quantum-chemical theory of describing the reactivity of polymers containing different functional groups is considered by the example of obtaining Bombyx mori carboxymethylchitosan nanoparticles by precipitating coacervation (various substitutions both in oxygen at C6 (O- CMCh) and in nitrogen in C2 (N- CMCh).

Findings. Nanoparticles of (O-, N-) carboxymethylchitosan of various sizes and shapes were obtained by the method of precipitating coacervation; a new concept for describing the reactivity of polymers was presented. It has been shown that the formation of nanoparticles implies an interaction between protonated amino groups and carboxyl anionic groups, with the formation of covalent and / or ionic bonds, which contributes to their stabilization.

Keywords: reactivity, electronic spectrum, (O-, N-) carboxymethylchitosan, nanoparticles.

Highlights:

* carboxymethylchitosan Bombyx mori nanoparticles are obtained;

* a new concept for describing the reactivity of polymers is presented.

References

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2. Bersuker I. The Jahn-Teller Effect and Vibronic Interactions in Modern Chemistry // Springer Science & Business Media. - 2013. – P. 319.

3. Beyder R. Atomy v molekulakh: Kvantovaya teoriya. Per. s angl.— M.: Mir, 2001. — 532 s.

4. Lusiana R. A., Siswanta D., Mudasir. and Hayashita T.// International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications. – 2013. – V. 4. - No 4. – P.231-235.

5. Pestov A.V. Yatluk YU.G. Karboksialkilirovannyye proizvodnyye hitina i hitozana. - Yekaterinburg: UrO RAN, 2017. - 85 c.

6. Rashidova S.SH., Klicheva O.B. Sintez N-zameshchennyh proizvodnyh hitozana Bombyxmori i formirovaniye nanochastits na ih osnove// Izvestiya Ufimskogo Nauchnogo tsentra RAN. – 2018. - No 3 (3). - S.95-97.

7. Takeshima T., Tada Y., Sakaguchi N., Watari F., Fugetsu B.// Nanomaterials. – 2015. – V.5. – No.1. – P.284-297.

8. Klicheva O.B., Aliev Kh.U., Batyrbekov A.A., Rashidova S.Sh. Synthesis of N-carboxymethylchitosan from Bombyx mori and its role in estimating hematological parameters // Chemistry of Natural Compounds. -2017. –No 4. - V. 53. – R. 726-728.

9. Seki Yoldas, Yurdakos Kadir // J. Appl. Polum. Sci. - 2008. - V. 109. -No1. - P. 683-690.

10. Klicheva O.B., Rashidova S.SH. Sravnitel'nyye kharakteristiki O- i N-karboksimetilirovannyh proizvodnyh hitozana Bombyxmori// Doklady Akademii nauk. – Tashkent. -2017. - No 1. - S.86-89.

11. Askarov B., Oksengendler B.L., Ivanova Ye.K., Nurgaliyev I.N., Konoplova M.V., Levitskaya YU.V., Rashidova S.SH. Elektronnaya struktura i reaktsionnaya sposobnost' biopolimerov s kompozitsionnym besporyadkom //Uzb. fiz. zhurnal. -Vol. 18. - No 1. - 2016. - S. 54-62.

12. Ivanova Ye.K., Askarov B., Nurgaliyev I.N., Konopleva M.V., Sheraliyeva SH., Oksengendler B.L., Rashidova S.SH. Polimery – novyy klass psevdoshchelevyh materialov // Uzb. fiz. zhurn. - T. 18. - No6. - 2016. - S. 412-420.

To cite this article: I. N. Nurgaliyev, B. L. Oksengendler, S. Sh. Rashidova. To the question of the concept of quantum-chemical theory of reaction ability of functional groups of polymers // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.50-54.

Received: 12.04.2018; Accepted: 16.05.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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УДК: 547.633.541.123.661.744

A. B. Parmanov, S. E. Nurmonov, B. Kolesinska, M. I. Mavloniy, B. N. Handamov

SYNTHESIS OF VINYL ESTERS OF AROMATIC CARBONIC ACIDS BASED ON VINYL ACETATE

National University of Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan, 1Lodz Polytechnic University, Poland, E-mail: asqar.parmanov@mail.ru

Abstract. Background. Vinyl esters of carboxylic acids are widely used as solvents in the chemical industry, additives in the food industry, monomers in the preparation of composite materials, initial compounds in organic synthesis. Carboxylic acids and polymers based on them have adhesion properties and are used in the preparation of materials that protect various surfaces. On the basis of divinyl ethers low-toxic biomaterials are synthesized by photopolymerization.

Purpose. Synthesis of the corresponding vinyl esters in homogeneous conditions based on the reaction of benzoic anhydride containing various substituents in the aromatic ring with vinyl acetate. The study of the influence of the nature of substances on the product yield was carried out.

Methodology. Vinyl ether by reacting aromatic carboxylic anhydride with potassium vinyl acetate, obtained by reacting potassium tertiary butylate (t-BuOK) with vinyl acetate was ynthesized. The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by spectral analysis of FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR.

Originality. As a result of the reaction of benzoyl anhydrides containing various substituents in the aromatic ring, with vinyl potassium vinyl acetate, vinyl ethers were synthesized without catalysis. The mechanism of influence of ions of vinyloxide is grounded.

Findings. Vinyl esters of benzoic acid, which contain various substituents in the aromatic ring, have been synthesized. The influence of the nature of the compounds and their molar ratio on the yield of vinyl ether is determined.

Key words: anhydrides of aromatic carboxylic acids, vinyl acetate, potassium vinylate, vinyloxy ion, vinyl ether.

Highlights:

* vinyl esters of aromatic carboxylic acids have been synthesised;

* the nucleophilic action of the vinyloxy group was studied;

* the effect of the nature of the initial compounds on the yield of vinyl ether was investigated.

References

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2. H. M. L. Davies, B. Hu. Highly stereoselective 3 + 2 annulations by cyclopropanation of vinyl ethers with rhodium(II)-stabilized vinylcarbenoids followed by a formally forbidden 1,3-sigmatropic rearrangement // J. Org. Chem. -1992. -57. –Р. 3186.

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5. X. Wei, J. C. Lorenz, S. Kapadia, A. Saha, N. Haddad, C. A. Busacca, C. H. Senanayake. Tandem pd(ii)-catalyzed vinyl ether exchange-claisen rearrangement as a facile approach to ç,ä-unsaturated aldehydes // J. Org. Chem. -2007. -72. –Р. 4250.

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21. Kaminski, Z.J. A new reaction of 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-(diaryloxy)-1,3,5-triazines with carboxylic acids leading to hitherto unknown 2-acyloxy-4,6-dimethoxy-(diaryloxy)-1,3,5-triazines // J. Prakt. Chem. – 1990. – 332. –Р. 579–581.

To cite this article: A. B. Parmanov, S. E. Nurmonov, B. Kolesinska, M. I. Mavloniy, B. N. Handamov. Synthesis of vinyl esters of aromatic carbonic acids based on vinyl acetate // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.55-62.

Received: 12.03.2018; Accepted: 10.05.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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УДК 563.6.086.83: 541:536.63

N. R. Vokhidova, Sh. Sh. Khudoyberdiyev, I. G. Panova, A. A. Yaroslavov, S. Sh. Rashidova

ABOUT OBTAINING OF INTERPOLIELECTROLYTE COMPLEXES OF CHITOSAN BOMBYX MORI

Institute of Chemistry and Physics of Polymers of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, 100128, Uzbekistan, E-mail: noira_vokhidova@yahoo.de, 2Moscow State University Lomonosov Russian Federation, Moscow, Lenin Hills, 1

Abstract. Background. Currently huge amount of work has been carried out to obtain interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) of chitosan with natural and synthetic polyanions. Presence of charge in the macromolecule on surface of IPEC particles could effectively immobilize oppositely charged of particles. In this regard, polyelectrolyte complexes are used for wastewater purification, targeted drug delivery, for the construction of different biomaterials, as well as biologically active and biodegradabled of agricultural preparations. At the present, time study of fundamental principles of obtaining IPEC of natural polyelectrolytes and creation of preparations based on nosshown scientific and applied interest.

Purpose. The aimof study is obtaining thermodynamically stable interpolyelectrolyte complexes based on Bombyx mori chitosan and study their ability to bind with soil minerals.

Methodology. At this work are used turbidimetric, potentiometric and conductometric titration, laser microelectrophoresis, elemental analysis, etc.

Originality. For the first time, stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric Bombyx mori chitosan complexes were obtained and hoyghown the possibility of their applicotions as a structurant for soil erosion.

Findings. Obtained IPEC chitosan Bombyx mori with macromolecules of Na-CMC. The composition and hydrodynamic dimensions of the complexes are revealed. It was established that at pH = 6.3 of, chitosan and Na-CMC interacted at 1: 0.34 molar ratio. The particle size of IPEC in solution ranges from 80 to 1000 nm and has ability to bind with soil minerals, forming strong crusts. It hos shown that polyelectrolyte crusts are durable to washing and mechanical stress, which in will be applied in soil erosion.

Keywords: Bombyx mori chitosan, interpolyelectrolyte complexes, soil formative agent.

Highlights:

* biodegradable and environmentally products are included;

* chitosan is non-toxic polymer and extracted from renewable natural sources;

* interpolyelectrolyte complexes could be used in agriculture.

References

1. Rashidova S.SH., Milusheva R.YU. Hitin i hitozan Bombyxmori. Sintez, svoystva i primeneniye. - T.: Izd-vo «Fan», 2009. - 246 s.

2. Quitina I Quitosano: abtencion, caracterizacion y aplicaciones. Editora: AnaPastordeAbram (Peru). / Perevod s ispanskogo Mikhlinoy K.M., Zhukovoy Ye.V., Krylovoy Ye.S. Nauchnaya red. pod ruk. Varlamova V.P. - Izd-vo: Rossiyskogo khitinovogo obshchestva, 2010. - 292 s.

3. Maksimov I.V. Biologicheskaya aktivnost' hitina i sfera yego primeneniya // Biologiya, biohimiya i genetika. – Ufa. - 2013. - No2.- S. 38-61

4. Rashidova S.SH., Rashidova D.K., Vokhidova N.R., Mamedov N.M. va b. Qishlok kho’zhaligi ekinlarida polimer shaklli birikmalarni qo’llashning holati va istiqbollari” / Ilmiy-uslubiy kˌŭllanma. - Toshkent. “Reliableprint”, 2015. - 64 b.

5. Izumrudov V.A., Volkova I.F., Grigoryan E.S., Gorshkova M.YU. Vodorastvorimyye nestehiometrichnyye polielektrolitnyye kompleksy modifitsirovannogo hitozana // Vysokomolekulyarnyye soyedineniya, Seriya A. – 2011. – T. 53. - No 4. - S. 515–524.

6. Teregulova G.A., Aktuganov G.E., Suleymanov R.R. i dr. Rasprostranennost' kul'tiviruyemyh form hitin- i hitozan-degradiruyushchikh mikroorganizmov v nekotoryh tipah pochv yuzhnogo Urala // Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta. - 2014. - T. 19. – No 3. - S.853-857

7. Tsyganov A.R. Prodolzhitel'nost' vliyaniya obrabotki dernovo-podzolistoy peschanoy pochvy vodorastvorimym polimerom na urozhaynost' sel'skohozyaystvennyh kul'tur i nakopleniye radionuklidov // Agrotekhnologii. Zemledeliye i zashchita rasteniy. - No 5. - 2018. - S.12-16

8. Taubayeva R.S., Musabekov K.B. i dr. Vliyaniye polielektrolitov i ikh smesey na flokulyatsiyu gidrosuspenzii kaolina // Vestnik KazNU. Seriya khimicheskaya. – No 3 (75). - 2014. - S.70-74

9. Panova, I. G., Sybachin, A. V., Spiridonov, V. V., Kydralieva, K., Jorobekova, S., Zezin, A. B., &Yaroslavov, A. A. (2017). Non‐stoichiometric interpolyelectrolyte complexes: Promising candidates for protection of soils // Geoderma. – 2017. – 307. – R. 91–97.

10. Panova I., Drobyazko A., Spiridonov V., Sybachin A., Yaroslavov A. et al. Humics‐based interpolyelectrolyte complexes for antierosion protection of soil: Model investigation // Land Degrad Dev. – 2019. – 30. –R. 337–347.

11. Spisok pestitsidov i agrokhimikatov, razreshennyh dlya primeneniya v sel'skom hozyaystve Respubliki Uzbekistan. –Tashkent: «Nisopoligraf», 2013. - 335 S.

12. Izumrudov V.A., Volkova I.F., Grigoryan E.S., Gorshkova M.YU. Vodorastvorimyye nestekhiometrichnyye polielektrolitnyye kompleksy modifitsirovannogo hitozana // Vysokomolekulyarnyye soyedineniya, Seriya A. – 2011. - T 53. - No 4. - S. 515–524.

13. Krayukhina M.A., Samoylova N.A., Yamskov I.A. Polielektrolitnyye kompleksy hitozana: formirovaniye, svoystva i primeneniye // Uspekhi himii. - 77 (9) 2008. - S. 854-869.

 

To cite this article: N. R. Vokhidova, Sh. Sh. Khudoyberdiyev, I. G. Panova, A. A. Yaroslavov, S. Sh. Rashidova. About obtaining of interpolielectrolyte complexes of chitosan Bombyx mori // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.62-67.

Received: 18.03.2018; Accepted: 17.05.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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УДК.678; 615.453.8.

A. A. Sarymsakov, S. S. Yarmatov, 1Kh. O. Eshchanov

POLYFUNCTIONAL HEMOSORBENTS BASED ON NATURAL SILK FIBER WASTE

Institute of Chemistry and Physics of Polymers of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Tashkent, 100128, Uzbekistan, E-mail: polymer@academy.uz 1Urgench State University, 220100, Urgench, ul. H.Alimjan, house 14,E-mail: urdu341@umail.uz

Abstract. Background. With low effectiveness of drug therapy, the method of hemosorption is the most effective way to treat diseases. Despite the presence of various types and forms of hemosorbents, the creation of their new generations aimed at the treatment of specific diseases is an urgent task that chemists, pharmacologists and physicians are facing.

Purpose.The creation of polyfunctional hemosorbents through chemical modification of substandard cocoons and fibrous wastes of silk industry enterprises.

Methodology. A method of separating fibroin and sericin in natural silk fiber waste, after the stage of removing fat-wax and mineral impurities, by treating them in pure water at a temperature of 120°C has been developed. This method allows to obtain pure fibroin and an aqueous solution of sericin, which does not require additional purification, as in the case of acid or alkaline hydrolysis of silk threads. IR-spectroscopy and light microscopy were used to study the composition, structure and properties of the methods. Their sorption activity was evaluated using vitamin B12.

Originality. For the first time, the possibility of separating sericin and fibroin in natural silk waste has been demonstrated by regulating the temperature of pure water with the subsequent production of pure sericin and fibroin-based hemosorbents.

Findings. The possibility of obtaining pure sericin by evaporation and freeze-drying of aqueous solutions of sericin, which are necessary for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, is shown. By re-hydrolysis of pure fibroin at relatively high temperatures and pressure, followed by treatment of hydrolyzed fibroin in an ultra-high-frequency field, multifunctional hemosorbents with high porosity are obtained, containing both cationic and anion-active functional groups. The sorption activity of the hemosorbents obtained was investigated using vitamin B12. It was established that the sorption activity of the obtained polyfunctional hemosorbents is at the level of the industrially produced hemosorbents “Simplex-EK” (Russia)

Keywords: unconditioned cocoons, fibrous wastes of the silk industry, hydrolysis, fibroin, sericin, polyfunctional hemosorbents, sorption activity, vitamin B12.

Highlights:

* the possibility of obtaining sericin and fibroin from wastes of the silk industry;

* on the basis of pure sericin, polyfunctional hemosupply agents were obtained.

References

1. P'yanova L.G. Uglerodnyye sorbenty v meditsine i proteomike // Himiya v interesah ustoychivogo razvitiya. -2011. - 113-122 s.

2. L.S. Smirnov, YU.I. Maslennikov, V.YU. Yavorskiy. - Istochnik: «Tehnologiya tkanevyaznogo proizvodstva», 2008.

3. Opisaniye izobreteniya k patentu. Kosmeticheskoye sredstvo / Knappe Torsten, Sheffler Rene, Val'ter Khelen; Opublikovano: 10.10.2012 Byul. No 28 // RU 2463036.

4. Mondal M., Trivedy K., Nirmal Kumar S. The silk proteins, sericin and fibroin in silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn. — a review // Caspian J. Env. Sci. – 2007. - V. 5. - No. 2. - R. 63-76.

5. C.Vepari and D.L.Kaplan ‘Silk as a Biomaterial // Prog Polym Sci. -2007. -32.(8-9). –R.991-1007.

6. Wadbua P., Promdonkoy B., Maensiri S., Siri S. Different properties of electrospun firous scaffolds of separated heavy-chain and light-chain firoins of Bombyx mori // Int J Biol Macromol. -2010; 46(5): 493–501.

7. Ho W. Single-molecule chemistry // J Chem Phys. - 2002; 117(24): 11033–11061.

8. Tanaka K., Inoue S., Mizuno S. Hydrophobic interaction of P25, containing Asn-linked oligosaccharide chains, with the H-L complex of silk firoin produced by Bombyx mori // Insect Biochem Mol Biol. - 1999; 29(3): 269–276.

9. Inoue S., Tanaka K., Arisaka F., Kimura S., Ohtomo K., Mizuno S. Silk firoin of Bombyx mori is secreted, assembling a high molecular mass elementary unit consisting of H-chain, L-chain, and P25, with a 6:6:1 molar ratio // J Biol Chem. - 2000; 275(51): 40517–40528.

10. Lian X.-J., Wang S., Zhu H.-S. Surface properties and cytocompatibillity of silk firoin fims cast from aqueous solutions in different concentrations // Front Mater Sci China. - 2010; 4(1): 57–63.

11. Opisaniye izobreteniya k patentu. Kosmeticheskoye sredstvo / Knappe Torsten, Sheffler Rene, Val'ter Khelen; Opublikovano: 10.10.2012 Byul. No 28 // RU 2463036.

12. Opisaniye izobreteniya k patentu. Sposob polucheniya seritsina i fibroina / Ochilova Rakhima Khakimovna; Opublikovano: 10.04.2010 Byul. No 10 // RU 2385649.

13. Opisaniye izobreteniya k patentu. Funktsional'nyy biologicheski aktivnyy produkt (varianty) i sposob yego polucheniya / I.I. Agapov, M.M. Moysenovich, A.A. Kazyulina; Opublikovano Byul. № 10 // RU 2446711.

14. Gandhimathi, C., Venugopal, J.R., Tham, A.Y., Ramakrishna, S., and Kumar, S.D.: ‘Biomimetic hybrid nanofibrous substrates for mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into osteogenic cells’ // Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications. – 2015. - 49. - R. 776-785.

To cite this article: A. A. Sarymsakov, S. S. Yarmatov, Kh. O. Eshchanov. Polyfunctional hemosorbents based on natural silk fiber waste // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.67-75.

Received: 10.04.2018; Accepted: 17.05.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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УДК 546.123.3

N. A. Erkayeva, H. T. Sharipova, A. U. Erkav, B. H. Kucharov, A. T. Kaipbergenov

INFLUENCE OF COMPOSITION OF WASHING COMPOSITIONS ON THEIR FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS

Tashkent Institute of Chemical Technology, Tashkent

Abstract. Background. Accelerated development of the chemical industry has allowed in recent years to significantly expand the range of domestic synthetic detergents (SMS) and increase their production. Analysis of the consumption of technical detergents in our country shows that for the degreasing of various surfaces instead of alkalis, surfactant aqueous solutions and compositions with active additives are increasingly used.

Purpose to determine the optimal compositions of the composition of CMC from local raw materials.

Methodology. For the preparation of SMS as a source of raw materials were used: SLES, LABSA, urea, salt, CMC, various types of starches, gelatin. In order to determine the foaming capacity of CMC, solutions of various concentrations were prepared,%: 0.5; one; five; 10 and determined their functional performance.

Originality. Studies of the effect of the mass ratio of reactants on functional indicators of SMS.

Findings. The influence of the mass ratio of the initial reagents on the functional performance of the obtained detergent was studied with varying the composition of the surfactant-NaCMC-NaCl-K2CO3-H2O system. The results of the influence of sodium chloride, corn and potato starch, as well as NaМMC of various brands on the functional indicators of liquid SMS are shown.

Keywords: synthetic detergents, component, ratio, sodium chloride, system, foam, solution.

Highlights.

* the addition of potassium carbonate leads to an increase in viscosity CMC;

* the kinetics of reactions, foaming and washing ability of SMS were studied.

References

1. Vetoshkin YU.S. Prognozirovaniye proizvodstva i potrebleniye SMS i tovarov bytovoy himii v Rossii do 2010g.// Bytovaya himiya.-2007.-No25.-S.16.

2. Anders E.K. Global'nyy i Rossiyskiy rynok SMS. Sostoyaniye, razviteye, perspektivy // /Bytovaya himiya.-2007.- No 26. -S.5.

3. Bukhshtab Z.I. Tehnologiya sinteticheskih moyushchih sredstv / Z.I.Bukhshtab, A.P.Mel'nik, V.M.Kovalov.- M.: Legprombytizdat, 1988. – 320s, ISBN 5-7088-0365 -7

4. Nikolayev P.V., Petrova N.A. Osnovy himii i tehnologiya proizvodstva sinteticheskih moyushchih sredstv.- Ivanovo, 2007.-405s.

5. Sharova A. Silikonovyye PAV SILWET // Bytovaya himiya. -2006. -No 22.-S.17.

6. Abilova A.K., Yershova T.S. Ekologicheskiye svoystva sinteticheskih moyushchih sredstv. - Moskva, 2001.-230s

7. Kimyo, neft – gaz qayta ishlashning va oziq ovqat sanoatlarining innovatsion tehnologiyalarining dolzarb muammolari/ ErkaevA.U. RambergenovA.K, OspanovaN.S, Toirov.Z.K, BurashovN.// Toshkent – Qo’ng’irot 2010.

8. GOST 22567.1-77. Metod opredeleniya penoobrazuyushchey sposobnosti. – M.: Izd. Standartov, 1978. – 6s.

9. GOST 22567.15-95. Sredstva moyushchiye sinteticheskiye.Metod opredeleniya moyushchey sposobnosti. – Minsk: Izd. Standartov, 1999. – 11s.Sumich A.I. Polucheniye seskvikarbonata natriya «sukhim» sposobom. / Materialy 17-oy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii studentov i molodyh uchonyh imeni professsora L.P.Kuleva.- Tomsk, 2016.- S.126-127.

10. Kaipbergenov A.T., Erkayev A.U., Baratov S. Klassifikatsiya i razrabotka gibkoy tehnologii proizvodstva tehnicheskikh moyushchih sredstv / Mezhdunarodnaya nauchno prakticheskaya konferentsiya «Sovremennyye aktual'nyye problemy yestestvennyh nauk». –Aktobe. -2014. -S.177-178.

To cite this article: N. A. Erkayeva, H. T. Sharipova, A. U. Erkav, B. H. Kucharov, A. T. Kaipbergenov. Influence of composition of washing compositions on their functional indicators // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.76-83.

Received: 16.04.2018; Accepted: 17.05.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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УДК 665.765-404.9

S. Kh. Ganieva, B. N. Khamidov, B. Kh. Ubaydullaev, M. M. Mirzaeva, B. A. Smanov

THE USE OF RAPESEED OIL AS A DISPERSION MEDIUM FOR ALTERNATIVE LUBRICANTS

Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan E-mail: khimiyanefti@mail.ru  

Abstract. Background. Due to the intensive development of the oil industry with the emergence of new sources of pollution, the relevance of environmental issues has increased dramatically. Therefore, the development and implementation of biodegradable lubricants is a promising direction of development of the world petrochemical industry. The leading role in solving this problem belongs to bioresources – vegetable oils, especially rapeseed oil and products of its transesterification, which are an acceptable alternative to oil raw materials for the production of lubricants.

Purpose. Development of environmentally friendly lubricants with increased biodegradability from local raw materials.Determination of their physical, chemical and operational characteristics.

Methodology. Comparative physical and chemical parameters of motor and biodegradable oils were determined according to TU TSh 39.3-199:2003. The IR spectra of rapeseed oil and nigrol were analyzed on a SHIMADZU spectrophotometer. The qualitative and quantitative content of chemical elements, the elemental composition of finely divided graphite substances after the second flotation purification were determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis.

Originality. A new composition of lubricants with enhanced performance and biodegradability, competitive with foreign counterparts, has been developed. Significant scientific and practical interest are the raw materials and technological capabilities of local industries, including oil refinery, oil and fat factory.

Findings. The composition of biodegradable motor oil based on rapeseed oil was obtained using finely divided graphite from the second flotation purification of graphite ore with a carbon content of 31% as an additive.

Keywords: biodegradability, ecology, environmentally safe lubricant, flotation agent, graphite, rapeseed oil.

Highlights:

* physical and chemical characteristics of rapeseed oil were determined;

* a composition of motor oil based on rapeseed oil was obtained;

* comparative physical - chemical characteristics of motor and biodegradable oils are given.

References

1. Yevdokimov A.YU., Fuks I.G., Lyubinin I.A. Smazochnyye materialy v tekhnosfere i biosfere (ekologicheskiy aspekt). – Kiyev: Attika, 2012. -292s.

2. Oblashchikova I.R. Issledovaniye rapsovogo masla v kachestve osnovy al'ternativnyh smazochnyh materialov: Diss... kand.tehn.nauk. –M.: RGUnefti i gaza im. I.M.Gubkina, 2004.

3. Yevdokimov A.YU. Biosfera i krizis tsivilizatsii. - M.: Institut russkoy tsivilizatsii, 2008. -480 s.

4. Ukaz Prezidenta Respubliki Uzbekistan No UP-5024 «O sovershenstvovanii sistemy gosudarstvennogo upravleniya v sfere ekologii i ohrany okruzhayushchey sredy» punkt 2 ot 21 aprelya 2017g.

5. Khamidov B.N., Ubaydullayev B.KH., Mirzayeva M.M., Ganiyeva S.KH., Smanov B.A. Umen'sheniye ekologicheskoy opasnosti dizel'nogo topliva i smazochnyh masel s ispol'zovaniyem rastitel'nogo syr'ya // Uzbekskiy zhurnal nefti i gaza. -2018. -No 4. -S.52-54.

6. Yevdokimov A.YU., Fuks I.G., Oblashchikova I.R. Ekologicheskiye aspekty himmotologii smazochnyh materialov. -M.: GUP Izdatel'stvo «Neft' i gaz», RGU nefti i gaza im. I.M. Gubkina, 2001. -S. 115-116.

7. Patent RF No 2166534. MPK7S11S1/04, 2001.

8. Devyanin S.N. Rastitel'nyye masla i topliva na ih osnove dlya dizel'nyh dvigateley. - M.: FGOU VPO MGAU, 2008. - 340 s.

9. Yevdokimov, A.YU. Smazochnyye materialy na osnove rastitel'nyh i zhivotnyh zhirov. -M.: TSNIITEIMS, 1992. – 124s.

10. Yedukov, V.A. Snizheniye energeticheskih zatrat v traktornyh transmissiyah putem ispol'zovaniya legirovannogo rapsovogo masla: Diss. ... kand. tehn. nauk. -Samara, 2003.

11. Himiya nefti (prakticheskoye rukovodstvo). -M-L.: Himiya, 1990. -268s.

12. Yevdokimov A.YU., Fuks I.G., Shabalina T.N., Bagdasarov L.N. Smazochnyye materialy i problemy ekologii. –M.: GUP Izdatel'stvo «Neft' i gaz», 2000. -423s.

To cite this article: S. Kh. Ganieva, B. N. Khamidov, B. Kh. Ubaydullaev, M. M. Mirzaeva, B. A. Smanov. The use of rapeseed oil as a dispersion medium for alternative lubricants // Uzbek chemical journal. -2019. – Nr3. - Pp.83-90.

Received: 04.04.2018; Accepted: 10.05.2019; Published: 29.05.2019

 

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